Put questions to the words in bold type.

1. Benjamin Franklin made his kite experiment. 2. Nobodyunderstood that phenomenon. 3. The storyof his kite is known all over the world. 4. On a stormy dayFranklin and his son went into the country.5.The keywas connected to the lower end of the string. 6. Soon the kitewas flying high among the clouds.7. The electric sparks proved that lightning is a discharge of electricity.8. The wetstring conducted the electricity. 9. Franklininvented the lightning conductor.

8. Translate the following sentences paying attention to both, both...and:

1. The students made two experiments: they were both interesting and useful. 2. Both scientists studied atmospheric electricity. 3. Both of us will work in the Institute laboratory tomorrow. 4. Both Lomonosov and Rihman were great scientists; both of them worked at atmospheric electricity. 5. Both these devices were constructed in Moscow. 6. Electricity is used both in industry and in everyday life. 7. Both nuclear power and solar power will be widely used in the future. 8. Lightning and atmospheric electricity are one and the same thing: both of them are used in literature. 9. Many scientists and inventors, both Russian and foreign, have greatly contributed to the development and practical application of the electric current. 10. Both chemical power and mechanical power can be changed into electricity.

9. Fill in the blanks with prepositions:

1. It is dangerous to go ... a stormy day. 2. Lightning is a very great flash ... light resulting ... a discharge ... atmospheric electricity. 3. Protecting building ... lightning was the first discovery ... thefield ... electricity used ... the good ... mankind. 4. ... thousands ... years people knew nothing ... thunderstorms. 5. Lightning flashes are followed ... thunder which can be heard ... kilometres around. 6. There is always some danger ... a thunderstorm ... a very high building or a man standing .. the open field. 7. It is difficult to see a single drop ... water ... the sea. 8. Some scientists ..the past melted metals ... the help ... solar furnaces. 9. Modern civilization cannot do ... electrical appliances. 10. The electric current is necessary ... the operation ... trolleybuses, buses and modern trains.

10. Translate into Russian:

(a) the only son; the only example known; the only method of solving the problem; only you can do it for me; coal is not only a source of heat, but also a source of valuable chemical substances; the letter was sent only yesterday;

(b) many students were present; at the present time; the present article; he is in Moscow at present; that is all for the present; good-bye for the present.

11. Form five sentences combining suitable parts of the sentence given in Columns I and II:


1.Generator 1. measures the temperature of hot melted metals.

2.Lightning conductor 2. lifts objects weighing thousands of tons.

3.Battery 3. turns electrical power into mechanical


4.Electric crane 4. protects buildings from lightning strokes.

5.Pyrometer 5. turns mechanical power into electrical power.

Describe Franklin's kite experiment.

Give a short summary of the text.



In studying the electric current, we observe the following relation between magnetism and the electric current: on the one hand magnetism is produced by a current and on the other hand the current is produced from magnetism.

Magnetism is mentioned in the oldest writings of man. Romans, for example, knew that an object looking like a small dark stone had the property of attracting iron. However, nobody knew who discovered magnetism or where and when the discovery was made. Of course, people could not help repeating the stories that they had heard from their fathers who, in their turn, heard them from their own fathers and so on.

One story tells us of a man called Magnus whose iron staff was pulled to a stone and held there. He had great difficulty in pulling his staff away. Magnus carried the stone away with him in order to demonstrate its attracting ability among his friends. This unfamiliar substance was called Magnus, after its discoverer, this name having come down to us as "Magnet."

According to another story, a great mountain by the sea possessed so much magnetism that all passing ships were destroyed because all their iron parts fell out. They were pulled out because of the magnetic force of that mountain.

The earliest practical application of magnetism was connected with the use of a simple compass consisting of one small magnet pointing north and south.

A great step forward in the scientific study of magnetism was made by Gilbert, the well-known English physicist (1540-1603). He carried out various important experiments on electricity and magnetism and wrote a book where he put together all that was known about magnetism. He proved that the earth itself was a great magnet.

Reference must be made here to Galileo, the famous Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician. He took great interest in Gilbert's achievements and also studied the properties of magnetic materials. He experimented with them trying to increase their attracting power. One of his magnets, for example, could lift objects weighing 25 times its own weight.

At present, even a schoolboy is quite familiar with the fact that in magnetic materials, such as iron and steel, the molecules themselves are minute magnets, each of them having a north pole and a south pole. These molecules usually arrange themselves in a disorderly way, their north and south poles pointing in all directions and neutralizing one another.

The process of magnetization consists of turning these little magnets until all their north poles point in one direction and south poles in the other.

When iron and steel are magnetized, the molecules arrange themselves in a new orderly way instead of the disarrangement in which they neutralize each other a bar magnet into two parts, one finds that each of the two parts is a magnet having both a north pole and a south pole. In other words, we obtain two smaller magnets instead of our having a single one of a larger size. Dividing one of these two smaller magnets into two will give us the same result. Thus, we could continue this process, always getting similar results

On placing an unmagnetized iron bar near a strong magnet, we magnetize it. Rubbing the magnet is not required for that process. In other words, our iron bar has been magnetized by the strong magnet without rubbing it.



: 2016-07-23

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