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The invention of the voltaic cell in 1800 gave electrical experimenters a source of a constant flow of current. Seven years later the Danish scientist and experimenter, Oersted, decided to establish the relation between a flow of current and a magnetic needle. It took him at least 13 years more to find out that a compass needle is deflected when brought near a wire through which the electric current is flowing. Before he made his important discovery Oersted had tried many times to place a current-carrying wire at right angle to the magnetic needle, nevertheless he could detect no deflection. At last, during a lecture and in the presence of his students, he adjusted by chance a wire parallel to the needle. Then both he and his class saw that when the current was turned on, the needle deflected almost at right angles towards the conductor. When the direction of the current was reversed, the direction of the needle pointed in was reversed too. With the current flowing from left to right, the north end of the needle moves away from us as seen in Fig. 10. Oersted also pointed out that when the wire was adjusted below the needle, the deflection


was reversed. Hence, the movement of the needle also depended on the position of the wire, above it or below it.

The above-mentioned phenomenon highly interested Am­pere. (That the unit of current is named after the famous French physicist and mathematician is probably known to everyone.)

Ampere heard of Oersted's achievements and he, in hi: turn, repeated the experiment and added a number of further valuable observations and state­ments. His contribution to "electrodynamics," as he him­self called the new science, began in 1820 under the influ­ence of Oersted's discovery and continued throughout the rest of his life. Everyone knows the rule thanks to which we can always find the direction of the magnetic effect of a current, i It is known as Ampere's rule. It was Ampere who estab­lished and proved that magnetic effects could be produced with­out any magnets, by means of electricity alone. He turned his attention to the behaviour ofelectric current in a single straight conductor and in a con­ductor that is formed into a coil, i.e. a solenoid.

When a wire conducting a current is formed into a coil of several turns, the amount of magnetism is greatly increased. It is not difficult to understand that the greater the number of turns of wire, the greater will be the m.m.f. (that is the mag­neto-motive force) produced within the coil by any constant amount of current flowing through it. In addition, when doubling the current, we double the magnetism generated in the coil. However, we must not forget that an electric charge at rest does not produce any magnetic effect at all.

VA solenoid has two poles which attract and repel the poles of other magnets. While suspended, it takes up a north and a south direction exactly like the compass needle. A core of iron becomes strongly magnetized if placed within the sole­noid while the current is flowing."

When winding a coil of wire on an iron core, we obtain what is called an electromagnet. It is, so to say, a temporary magnet provided by electricity. Its behaviour is very simple. The device is lifeless unless an electric current flows through the coil. However, the device comes to life provided the cur­rent flows. The iron core will act as a magnet as long as the current continues passing along the winding. One may ask: "What advantage does an electromagnet possess over an ordi­nary magnet since both can attract and repel magnetic mate­rials?" That electromagnets are controllable and reliable magnets is perhaps known even to a schoolboy. They become strong magnets when we want them to. They will lose their magnetic properties as soon as the current is turned off.


1. Learn the following active words:

Advantage преимущество

Adjust регулировать

Angle угол

Attract притягивать

Coil катушка

core сердцевина, ядро

deflection отклоняться от

establish устанавливать

needle стрелка

relation отношение

repel отклонять

reverse обратный ход

turn вращение, поворот

2. Translate the following sentences into Russian:

1. When placing an iron core within the coil, we greatly increase the magnet's efficiency. 2. If suspended so that it :an rotate freely, the solenoid may be observed tq point north md south when the current flows. 3. This circuit can be

closed, if necessary. 4. When placed in a strong magnetic field, iron becomes magnetized. 5. When speaking about a direct current, we mean a continuous current.

3. Translate the following sentences and change them according to the
model given below

Model: It is the sun that is an unlimited source of almost all kinds of power.

The sun is an unlimited source of almost all kinds of power.

1. It is in the electrical appliance that the electric power is changed into heat. 2. It is an increase in temperature that increases the molecular motion. 3. It was Ampere who showed the difference between the current and the charges. 4. It is at the power station that electricity is produced. 5. It is the magnetic effect of the current that is the subject of this ar­ticle. 6. It is the unit of current that is named after Ampere.

4. Fill in the blanks with where, which, when, who, that:

1. We know ... Oersted established the connection between an electric flow of current and a magnetic needle. 2. The great scientists Volta, Ampere and Yablochkov may be named among those ... have greatly contributed to electrical engi­neering. 3. The end ... the lines of force leave the coil after passing through its core will act like a north magnetic pole. 4. ... there is a certain connection between electricity and magnetism was proved by experiments. 5. ... he placed the wire parallel to the needle he" saw ... the needle deflected. 6. A wire ... is wound in the form of a solenoid acts like a magnet as long as it is carrying a current.

5. Translate the following sentences paying special attention to the words in bold type:

1. Rubber is a very poor conductor of electricity. 2. This is the very appliance which I need for my experiment. 3. Lomonosov was born in the family of a poor peasant. 4. All metals are poor insulators of an electric current. 5. The Russian Federaion is a great country. 6. Next summer I shall have a rest in the country. 7. The restof the story should be translated at home. 8. Electricity at restor in a static condi­tion does no work. 9. Heat causes many chemical reactions. 10, What causes the electrons to flow along the wire? 11. Short circuit may be the cause of fire.

6. Fill in the blanks with either should or would:

1. The development of industry ... be impossible without electricity. 2. This research work ... never have been completed without help. 3. We ... like to read English articles on our specialty. 4. ... it be possible to live at a very low tempera­ture? 5. What ... you say, if you were late for the lesson? 6. Power must be supplied to the circuit and this power ,.. be equal in amount to that spent in the circuit.

7. Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions, make up sentences with the following infinitives:

to equip ... ; to depend ... ; to compare ... ; to consist ... ; to contribute ... ; to be interested ... ; to be familiar ...

8. Compare:

1. Potential power and kinetic power.

2. A series circuit and a parallel circuit.

3. A conductor and an insulator.

4. The magnetic effect of an electric current and the heating effect of an electric current.

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