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Ex. 1. Read these sentences. Compare the predicates in these pairs of sentences

a 1. I attend all lectures at the University. 2. We often use the Internet. 3. He applies a new method in his research.     4. Scientists know all fundamental discoveries. All lectures at the University are attended by me. The Internet is often used by us. A new method is applied in his research. Новый метод применяется в его исследовании. All fundamental discoveries are known to our scientists.

 

b 1. He finished the article yesterday. 2. We studied the rule at the lesson last week.   I developed a new system of notation. The article was finished by him yesterday. The rule was studied at the lesson last week. Это правило изучили на уроке на прошлой неделе. A new system of notation was developed by me.
с   1. We shall discuss a new program at the lecture tomorrow. 2. He will answer all your questions after the lecture. 3. The writer will publish his book next year. A new program will be discussed at the lecture tomorrow. All your questions will be answered after the lecture. The book will be published by the writer next year. Книга будет опубликована писателем в следующем году.
d Interrogative   1. The operations with symbols are performed in algebra. 2. The first coefficient is represented by the letter. 3. Some interesting facts were found in that book. 4. The report will be prepared in time. Are the operations with symbols performed in algebra? Is the first coefficient represented by the letter? Were any interesting facts found in that book? Will the report be prepared in time?
e Negative 1. This combination is used in the new system. 2. Such members are easily multiplied. 3. I was told to solve another equation. 4. The order of the operations will be discussed later. This combination is not used in the new system. Such members are not easily multiplied. I was not told to solve another equation. The order of the operations will not be discussed later.

 

Ex. 2. State the voice of the verb in the following sentences. Translate these sentences.

1. The students left the experiment unfinished. 2. Algebraic language is used to express mathematical ideas. 3. The members of the equality are connected by the equality sign. 4. The result will be checked immediately. 5. We shall study higher mathematics next term. 6. This property was discussed in the previous chapter. 7. All the facts are summarized in this statement. 8. Will the test be written on Monday? 9. The student showed me his graduation paper a few days ago. 10. She will be told about their recent investigations in the field of algebra. 11. They told the foreign scientists about their studies in the theory of programming. 12. Their calculations will not be used in his work.

Pre-Reading Activity

Guess the meaning of the following words.

Expression [Iks`preS(q)n], identical [aI`dentik(q)l], conditional [kqn`dIS(q)nl], accuracy [`xkjurqsI], classify [`klxsifaI], linear [`lInIq], transformation [,trxnsfq`meiS(q)n], original [q`rIGqnl], reduce [rI`djHs].

Read and learn the basic vocabulary terms.

equation (n) [i`kweiSqn] – уравнение

statement (n) [`steItmqnt] – утверждение, формулировка

finite (a) [`faInaIt] – конечный

variable (a) [`vFqriqbl] – переменная

identical (a) [aI`dentIkql] – аналогичный

briefly (adv) [`brJflI] – кратко

root (n) [rHt] – корень

aid (n) [eId] – помощь

illustrate (v) [`IlqstreIt] – иллюстрировать

restriction (n) [rIs`trIkSqn] – ограничение

substitute (v) [`sAbstitjHt] – замещать, заменять

satisfy (v) [`sxtIsSaI] – удовлетворять

linear (a) [`lInIq] – линейный

quadratic (a) [kwq`drxtIk] – квадратичный

cubic (a) [`kjHbIk] – кубический

integral (n) [`IntIgrql] – интеграл, целое число

fractional (a) [`frxkSqnql] – дробный

rational (a) [`rxSqnl] – 1. рациональный; 2. целесообразный

irrational (n) [i`rxSqnl] – иррациональное число

original (a) [O`rIGqnl] – первоначальный

extraneous (a) [eks`treInjqs] – посторонний, чуждый

 

 

Memorize the following word combinations.

1. other than – кроме;

2. in question – рассматриваемый;

3. to check the accuracy – проверить точность;

4. for convenience – для удобства;

5. regardless of the form – независимо от формы;

6. when applied to an equation – в применении к уравнению;

7. is said to be equivalent with respect to – считается эквивалентным относительно;

8. can readily be recognized and discarded – можно легко распознать и отбросить.

 

Reading Activity

 

Equations and Identities

An equation is a statement of equality between two algebraic expressions. The two expressions are called members, or sides of the equation. If the two members of an equation are finite and are exactly the same, or become the same, for every value of the symbols or variables involved, the equation is called an identical equation or an identity, for example

(x - 2)2 = x2 - 4х + 4, (x + 3) (x - 2) = x2 + x - 6

If the two members of an equation are equal for certain particular values of the symbols involved, but not for all values, the equation is called a conditional equation, or briefly, an equation. An equation in one unknown, say x, is a way of describing one or more numbers by stating a condition the numbers must satisfy. To solve an equation is to find values of the unknowns that make the two members equal. Such values of the unknowns are called roots or solutions of the equation.

The following rules aid in finding the root.

1. The roots of an equation remain unchanged if the same expression is added to or subtracted from both sides of the equation.

2. The roots of an equation remain the same if both sides of the equation are multiplied or divided by the same expression other than zero and not involving the letter whose value is in question.

The equation 2x = 4, where x is the unknown, is true for x = 2. To illustrate the first of the above two rules, add 5x to both sides of the equation 2x = 4. We get 2x + 5x = 4+5x which, like equation 2x = 4, is true for only x = 2. To illustrate the importance of the restriction in the second of the above two laws, multiply both sides of the equation by x and get

(2x) x = (4x) x which is true not only for x = 2, but also for x = 0.

It is always a good plan to check the accuracy of one's work by substituting the result in the original equation to see whether the equation is true for this value.

These numbers or values of the unknown x actually satisfy the equation upon substitution.

For convenience equations are classified in various ways; according to degree they may be linear, quadratic, cubic, etc.; in form, integral or fractional, rational or irrational. Regardless of the form the equation is in at first, the process of solving will involve transformations which will finally put it in the form:

the unknown = one or more definite values

Those transformations when applied to an equation will give a new or derived equation. A derived equation is said to be equivalent with respect to an original equation if it contains all the roots of that equation and no others. The following operations will always lead to equivalent equations, i.e.

1. Adding to or subtracting the same finite quantity from both members.

2. Multiplying or dividing both members by the same quantity provided this quantity is not zero and does not contain the unknown.

If the equation is fractional it may be changed into an integral equation by multiplying both sides by the Least Common Denominator. This process is called clearing the equation of fractions. The integral equation will have all the roots of the original fractional equation but sometimes will include additional roots. These extraneous roots will be values of the unknown for which the Least Common Denominator is zero and they can readily be recognized and discarded.

An equation in which the variable is raised to the first power only is usually called a linear, or first degree, equation.

To solve an equation containing fractions, first reduce each fraction to its lowest terms. Then multiply each side of the equation by the Least Common Denominator of all the denominators. This process is called clearing of fractions.

A quadratic equation is one which can be reduced to the form

2ax + bx + с = 0 (a 0) where a, b and с are known and x is unknown.

 

Post-Reading Activity

 

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