Substitute the underlined parts of the following sentences for the words and word combinations from the Text.
1. The Russian Federation is situated in Europe and Asia.
2. Its entire area is above 17 million square kilometers.
3. There are different types of climate in Russia.
4. The land of Russia differs a lot.
5. The Volga River is very significant to Russia.
6. Canals connect all the rivers.
7. The Volga River falls into the Caspian Sea.
8. Russia is next to fourteen countries.
9. Russia is a leading producer of cement, metal-cutting machines, timber and others.
10. Russia holds one of the principal places in Europe in industrial productivity.
11. Moscow was established in 1147.
12. The history of Russia originates from the year 862.
13. The federal government is composed of three branches: law-making, making and carrying out decisions and laws; and lawcourts and the administration of justice.
14. The lawmaking power is placed in control of the Federal Assembly.
15. The President may reject the proposed law draft.
16. The white stripe represents the earth, the blue one means the sky and the red one expresses the freedom.
17. The national emblem of Russia springs up from the heraldic emblem of Ruricovitchies.
Choose the antonyms from the right column to the phrases given in the left one.
Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false sentences.
1. The territory of the Russian Federation is situated in the Western part of Europe and in the Eastern part of Asia.
2. Russia is not washed by seas and oceans.
3. The climate of Russia is various.
4. The land of Russia varies a little.
5. There are a lot of rivers and lakes in Russia.
6. Russia is poor in natural resources.
7. The population of Russia is not very high.
8. There are no places of interest in Moscow.
9. The present Constitution of the Russia Federation was adopted in 1991.
10. The Federal Assembly consists of three chambers.
11. The Prime Minister is commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
12. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointment is to form the government.
13. The state symbol of Russia has two horizontal stripes: white and red.
Answer the following questions.
1. What is the area of the Russian Federation?
2. What seas and oceans is Russia washed by?
3. What is the climate in the North, central part and South of the country?
4. What plains is Russia located on?
5. What can you say about the rivers and lakes in Russia?
6. What natural resources is Russia rich in?
7. What are the borders of Russia?
8. What branches of industry does Russia have?
9. What is the population of the country?
10. What is Moscow famous for?
11. What is the political system of the country?
12. What does the federal government consist of?
13. What is the Upper Chamber?
14. What is the Lower Chamber?
15. What is the President responsible for?
16. What can you say about the executive power, the judicial branch and the Federal Assembly?
17. What does the state symbol of Russia symbolize?
Make up a plan of the Text and reproduce it according to the plan.
Some cities of Russia
1. St. Petersburg lies on the same parallel as Alaska and the southern part of Greenland. However, its climate due to the warm Gulfstream is milder. The winters are warmer than in Moscow, it becomes dark early during the short winter days but in early summer the white nights last for weeks.
2. Founded it 1703 by Peter the Great St. Petersburg was Russia’s capital until 1918.
3. The second largest city in Russia St. Petersburg has above 5 million people. Now St. Petersburg is one of Russia’s most important cultural centers. It has more than 40 institutions of higher education and a large number of research institutes. There are a lot of museums in St. Petersburg including the world-famous Hermitage with its 323 halls. Many of the former palaces are now museums.
4. Novosibirsk is situated on the Ob. Novosibirsk is a relatively young city. Today it has a population of about 1.5 million and is one of the largest industrial centers of Russia.
5. The most interesting feature of Novosibirsk’s cultural development is the appearance of the Siberian branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation. A new scientific center was built in a pinewood near the Ob Storage Lake formed by the Novosibirsk hydropower station. A lot of famous scientists came from all over the country to work here.
6. Volgograd stands near the Volga-Don Canal. There the left bank of the river is higher and from the deck of a ship people get a magnificent view of the 70-kilometer-long city. A bitter battle was fought here in 1942-43. It was history’s greatest battle, fighting continued for six and a half months, at the walls of the hero city, in its streets and squares.
7. This battle which ended in February 1943 with encirclement and destruction of a huge nazi army showed people patriotism, courage and heroism and was the turning point in the Great Patriotic War.
8. Industrial development of this city began long before the World War II. Many heavy industries that turned the city into one of the most important industrial centers of Russia were built during the prewar five-year plan periods.
9. Nazis turned the city into heaps of brick and metal. Today it is a city of beautiful buildings, busy streets and large parks.
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