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APPLICATION OF COMPARATIVE MODELS

28/03

 

WHAT IS A MODEL?

 

-A model offers a simplified representation of what are believed to be the essential features of the object.

- Good models not only describe their object accurately but also incorporate or generate possible explanations and predictions that can be tested.

-skopos theory. Polysystem theory

 

PREDICTIVE MODELS

-A good example of a powerful predictive model is Mendeleevs one of the periodic table of the chemical elements, which he developed around 1870.

- His table had gaps which the model predicted would be filled by elements that would discover later. Thie prediction eventually came true which was powerful evidence that the explanatory pronciples on which the table was based were correct.

MODELLING IN TS

 

- IN TS we do have many models which can be classified in different ways. They illustrate different theoretical approaches to translation and show how the field was developed.

- We also find the term model used in a less specific sense meaning approach or theory in general or even research methodology

 

COMPARATIVE MODEL

 

-Historically our first models were comparative and can be formalized simply like this ST=TT. That is there is a source text ST and target text TT and the relation between them is approximately equal.

 

- The approximately equal is of course where the concepts of correspondence and equivalence and similarity come in , always much debated. This kind of model is static and product based , and was influenced by Contrastive analysis in Linguistics , which studies the similarities and differenced between languages. In TS the focus was not on languages as such but on texts.

 

APPLICATION OF COMPARATIVE MODELS

 

- More specific comparative models showed possible translation equivalents for particular source-text items.

Catfords translation rules are based ( in theory) on detailed formulas showing when a given source item is translated as a given target item, in a given target language.

 

- Realia , ZOrivchak

- Later developments in TS introduced another version of the comparative model , when scholars started comparing translated text in a given language with non-translated texts in the same language. The focus of interest here is how translations TTS differ from non-translations NTS so the underlying relation is TT =/ NT. This approach led to research on translation universals, understood as features that typically distinguish translation from non-translation.

 

CAUSAL MODEL

 

-Causal models aim to be more explicit about cause-and-effect relations. By introducing causality they also make the models more explanatory not just descriptive. Causal models aim to represent both the various causes that effect translations and various effects that translation can have.

- The translations themselves are therefore seen as both effects and causes, like this

 

Causes > Translations > Effects.

 

The scope of the Casual Model

 

-many kinds of causal conditions that may affect translation socio-cultural and historical factors such as traditions and norms, economic factors, the translators personality and mood, the time and resources available the text type the translation skopos ( purpose) , the translators competence and so on.

 

- many kinds of effects including cognitive effects in a readers mind, behavioral effects on readers actions and broader effects on whole societies and cultures.

 

PROCESS MODEL

 

-early process model i TS were purely descriptive and represented a series of changes on stages through time.

-a famous example is Nida's model of the translation process. (1964) where the translation process is split into 3 stages:

-analysis of the source text into its basic semantic components.

-transfer into the target language

- restructuring this initial target version into an appropriate stylistic form

- Nidas model was grounded in the idea of representing translation as a special form of communication.

ADVANCED PROCESS MODELS

 

-writing in the context of the translation industry (not Bible trnsl like Nida) , Sager proposed a four-stage model that would serve to organize translation projects in technology and commerce and assure adequate quality.

 

- The stages were: Specification> Preparation > Translation> Evaluation. Sagers model thus dew attention to the importance of checking the translation brief (specification) preparing the necessary glossares and background texts etc. and having separate stage for checking ,perhaps done by a person or persons other than the translator. There are casual implications here : ifs some stages are gone through carelessly for instance quality will suffer.

- A similarly pedagogical goal underlies Nords looping model 1991 where the translator is described as looping back and forth recursively between the source text the evolving target text and the skopos.

 

GENETIC TRANSLATION STUDIES

 

-analyses practices of the working translator and the evolution of genesis of the translated text by studying translators manuscripts , drafts and other working documents ( avant texts)

- genetic translation studies focuses therefore on he transformation of the translated text during the process of its composition.

- It may like cognitive tr studies also attempt to deduce the strategies and mental operations of the working translator. Yet its methodology differs from the cognitive approach because its object is the textual evidence of the activity of translation rather than the translating subject.

- it maintains that the published text is but one phase in the texts evolution, and that this process of textual transformation continues , well after the works publication through its re-editions, its retranslation and its different reception by heterogeneous communities of readers.

 

Critique Genetique

 

Critique Genetique was born in France in the mid 1960s on the cusp of the shift from structuralist to post-structuralist conceptions of text and in intellectual climate where the authority of the author as well as the stability of both the published ceuvre and the written word were bought into question (Barthes 1971)

 

While post -structuralist critiques of text confronted assumptions of the text's stability with the evolving synchronic and intertextual networks upon which it depends,genetic critics sought to challenge the sacrosanct authority of the published text by showing how it is but one phase in a continuum of textual creation.

 

NEXUS MODEL

-because there are many kinds of causes that affects translations and often and often many people are involved in producing a translation some scholars have proposed network nexus models. ( Pym 1998 Koskien 2008)

 

- unlike simple process models nexus models are not linear. In these a translation is represented as the product of complex process involving a network of actors and agents, some of which may be collective or non-human (institutions, computers). TSscholars developing nexus-type models have drawn eg on Actor Network Theory in order to represent the relations and interactions between all the agents involved in a translation situation. This has been one way to develop a sociological approach to translation focusing on the people involved rather just the texts.

- Nexus models are no not explicitly causal but they do have some explanatory power, in that they strongly contextualize a translation process, showing the relations that surround and compose it.

 

What do models actually model?

 

- There are two more distinctions that affect a typology of translation models. Both derive from Gideon Toury's work. The first is the difference between models of the translation act and those of the translation event.

- The act is understood to take place at the cognitive level, inside the translator's head. The event is a sociological concept , beginning from the client's selection of a translator, or perhaps from the translator's first reading of some of the source text and ending when the translation is submitted to the client or perhaps when the translator is paid or the translation is read.

-The act is thus embedded in the event.

- The second additional point to be made derives from Tourys discussion of different senses of the notion of translation problem.

-Some models are virtual or optimal ones, designed to assist translator trainees in solving potential translation problems. They aim to model helpful processes leading to possible solution types. They may be based on experience , or on the analysis of lots of translations but they do not describe how a particular translator has arrived at a given solution.

 

What do models Do?

- Other models are built retrospectively from existing translations : given a feature in the translaton ( such as an unusual solution or an error of some kind) the scholar aims to reconstruct the probable problem-solving process and thus explain the solution. These models are reverse-engineered , then. They might indeed represent what really happened but not necessarily.

 

 

ETHICS AND TRANSLATION

 

-Dictionary entries tell us that the word ethics refers to systems of values that guide and help determine the rightness and wrongness of our actions.

 

-An ethics of translation then necessarily addresses what is considered the morally correct manner in which one should practice the task of rewriting a text to another language.

 

-Although every conception of translation implies a certain notion of the, ethical duties of translators for much of the history of translation discourse, the word ethics is absent because a certain ethical position for translators has generally been taken for granted.

 

-since translation has been understood as a task in which one strives to reproduce the original as closely as possible , ethical behavior has been simply posited as fidelity towards the original and its author.

 

A tradition of sameness

 

Etienne Dolet writes in 1540 that a translator first and foremost must have perfect knowledge: of the 2 lgs involved and understand perfectly the sense and the matter of the author he is translating

Vladimir Nabokov 1955, insists that the tr-r has only one duty to perform and this is to reproduce with absolute exactitude the whole text, and nothing but the text. In addition to this traditional view, ethical translators must accept their position of subservience and recognize that the texts they translate are not their own.

They must see their work as John Dryden describes in 1967 when discussing his relationship to the authors he translates : he who invents is master of his thoughts and words but the wretched translators he says of himself slaves we are, and labour on another mans plantation

Ethics turn

Throughout the 20th century some theorists began to posit the ethics of tr-n in a way that differs from the one that was implied by much of the Western tradition

It is fair to say that mainstream TS is beginning to critically examine many of the demands historically places upon translators

One example can be found in the skopos theory of tr-n by H.Vermeer , 1970s

Instead of trying to recreate what the original supposedly is, Vermeer suggests that translators focus on what the tr-n will be used for , and guide their actions based on its skopos or purpose. Considering that the TS and TT may have different purposes they may end up being very different from each other, something that may sound unethical acc to the traditional view discussed earlier.

 

Probably the most radical reworking of the ethics of translation has come from postmodern philosophy, most notably from Jasques Derridas deconstruction.

Acc to postmodern thought, meaning does not reside inside the text and is not uncovered or extracted but is attributed to them via the act of interpretation

 

These traditional requirements of fidelity are unattainable as is the notion of complete reproduction of original because tr-n will always transform it.

 

If tr-rs accept the fact that the original will always be transformed by the intervention of their work, they will also have to accepts the fact that contrary to the prevalent requirements that they do otherwise, they will always be visible as they leave marks of the decisions they have made

In this sense they break one of the taboos associated with tr-rs and take on a certain authorial role

This implies a complete reversal of the ethics placed on tr-rs by tradition and in fact it has been argued that striving for invisibility can be seen as unethical

 

Ethics of difference

 

One of the consequences of postmodern conceptions of tr-n and ethics has been the flourishing of trends that focus specifically on what Lawrence Venuti calls an ethics of difference 1999, addressing the questions of how power influences what is consider proper meaning and its correcr translation, and silences the alternate versions.

The foreignizing method of tr-ing a strategy Venuti also terms resistancy is a non-fluent or estranging tr-ion style designed to make visible the presence of the tr-or by highlighting the foreign identity of the ST and protectiong it from the ideological dominance of the target culture

In his later book The Scandals of Tr-n 1998 he continues to insist on foreignizing or as he also calls it minoritizing tr-n , to cultivate a varied and heterogeneous discourse

In this kind of scenario the ethical role of the tr-r is to take a stand against injustice that is reflectes in , brought about by or propagated through lg, exposing the hidden or unconscious agendas of what has historically been considered neutral

 

Venutis ethics in practice

One of the examples Venuti gives of a minoritizing project is his own tr-n of works by the 19th century Italian Tarchetti. The choice of works to tr-te is minoritizing since Tarchetti was a minor 19th century Italian writer (used Tuscan dialect to write experimental novels), challenged the moral and political values of the day)

As far as the lg is concerned the minoritizing or foreignizing method of Venutis tr-n comes through in the deliberate inclusion of foreignizing elements: the calques , archaisms, modern colloquialisms, used British spellings to jar the reader with a heterogeneous discourse

 

Tr-rs are complicit in the institutional exploitation of foreign texts and cultures. Since English is the most translated lg worldwide, but one of the least tr-ed into Venuti writes, tr-n upholds the hegemonic domination of countries like Britain and the US. To preserve the illusion that tr-n is an innocent act of transference , tr-rs are marginalized. They are poorly paid, often receive no royalties and are generally considered inferior to the original author. By favoring authors, copyright law protects a Romantic concept of original authorship.

Venuti case

A more fluent, popular tr-n would be more democratic. But would it also be less democratic because it reinforces the major lg and its many other linguistic and cultural exclusions.

Tendentious alterations were made to Umberto Ecos Name of the Rose. Venuti writes, The success of a highbrow novel in tr-n , then, should not ne taken as a new sophistication in American literary taste.

 

TEST

There are two more distinctions that affect a typology of translation models. Both derive from Gideon Toury's work. The first is the difference between models of the translation act and those of the translation event.

TRANSLATION ACT The act is understood to take place at the cognitive level, inside the translator's head. The act is thus embedded in the event..

TRANSLATION EVENT- The event is a sociological concept , beginning from the client's selection of a translator, or perhaps from the translator's first reading of some of the source text and ending when the translation is submitted to the client or perhaps when the translator is paid or the translation is read. CAUSAL MODEL - Causal models aim to be more explicit about cause-and-effect relations. By introducing causality they also make the models more explanatory not just descriptive. Causal models aim to represent both the various causes that effect translations and various effects that translation can have. ----Many kinds of causal conditions that may affect translation socio-cultural and historical factors such as traditions and norms, economic factors, the translators personality and mood, the time and resources available the text type the translation skopos ( purpose) , the translators competence and so on.

COMPARATIVE MODEL- -Historically our first models were comparative and can be formalized simply like this ST=TT. That is there is a source text ST and target text TT and the relation between them is approximately equal.The approximately equal is of course where the concepts of correspondence and equivalence and similarity come in , always much debated. This kind of model is static and product based , and was influenced by Contrastive analysis in Linguistics , which studies the similarities and differenced between languages. In TS the focus was not on languages as such but on texts.More specific comparative models showed possible translation equivalents for particular source-text items.Catfords translation rules are based ( in theory) on detailed formulas showing when a given source item is translated as a given target item, in a given target language.

TRANSLATION OF DIFFERENCE

28/03

 

WHAT IS A MODEL?

 

-A model offers a simplified representation of what are believed to be the essential features of the object.

- Good models not only describe their object accurately but also incorporate or generate possible explanations and predictions that can be tested.

-skopos theory. Polysystem theory

 

PREDICTIVE MODELS

-A good example of a powerful predictive model is Mendeleevs one of the periodic table of the chemical elements, which he developed around 1870.

- His table had gaps which the model predicted would be filled by elements that would discover later. Thie prediction eventually came true which was powerful evidence that the explanatory pronciples on which the table was based were correct.

MODELLING IN TS

 

- IN TS we do have many models which can be classified in different ways. They illustrate different theoretical approaches to translation and show how the field was developed.

- We also find the term model used in a less specific sense meaning approach or theory in general or even research methodology

 

COMPARATIVE MODEL

 

-Historically our first models were comparative and can be formalized simply like this ST=TT. That is there is a source text ST and target text TT and the relation between them is approximately equal.

 

- The approximately equal is of course where the concepts of correspondence and equivalence and similarity come in , always much debated. This kind of model is static and product based , and was influenced by Contrastive analysis in Linguistics , which studies the similarities and differenced between languages. In TS the focus was not on languages as such but on texts.

 

APPLICATION OF COMPARATIVE MODELS

 

- More specific comparative models showed possible translation equivalents for particular source-text items.

Catfords translation rules are based ( in theory) on detailed formulas showing when a given source item is translated as a given target item, in a given target language.

 

- Realia , ZOrivchak

- Later developments in TS introduced another version of the comparative model , when scholars started comparing translated text in a given language with non-translated texts in the same language. The focus of interest here is how translations TTS differ from non-translations NTS so the underlying relation is TT =/ NT. This approach led to research on translation universals, understood as features that typically distinguish translation from non-translation.

 

CAUSAL MODEL

 

-Causal models aim to be more explicit about cause-and-effect relations. By introducing causality they also make the models more explanatory not just descriptive. Causal models aim to represent both the various causes that effect translations and various effects that translation can have.

- The translations themselves are therefore seen as both effects and causes, like this

 

Causes > Translations > Effects.

 

The scope of the Casual Model

 

-many kinds of causal conditions that may affect translation socio-cultural and historical factors such as traditions and norms, economic factors, the translators personality and mood, the time and resources available the text type the translation skopos ( purpose) , the translators competence and so on.

 

- many kinds of effects including cognitive effects in a readers mind, behavioral effects on readers actions and broader effects on whole societies and cultures.

 

PROCESS MODEL

 

-early process model i TS were purely descriptive and represented a series of changes on stages through time.

-a famous example is Nida's model of the translation process. (1964) where the translation process is split into 3 stages:

-analysis of the source text into its basic semantic components.

-transfer into the target language

- restructuring this initial target version into an appropriate stylistic form

- Nidas model was grounded in the idea of representing translation as a special form of communication.

ADVANCED PROCESS MODELS

 

-writing in the context of the translation industry (not Bible trnsl like Nida) , Sager proposed a four-stage model that would serve to organize translation projects in technology and commerce and assure adequate quality.

 

- The stages were: Specification> Preparation > Translation> Evaluation. Sagers model thus dew attention to the importance of checking the translation brief (specification) preparing the necessary glossares and background texts etc. and having separate stage for checking ,perhaps done by a person or persons other than the translator. There are casual implications here : ifs some stages are gone through carelessly for instance quality will suffer.

- A similarly pedagogical goal underlies Nords looping model 1991 where the translator is described as looping back and forth recursively between the source text the evolving target text and the skopos.

 

: 2016-06-09

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