:






Rewrite each sentence as a positive or negative sentence, or a question, according to the instructions.

1 She's watching television now. (question)

Is she watching television now?

2 He isn't staying at this hotel, (positive)

He's staying at thle hotel.

3 She's reading, (negative)

She isn't reading.

4 They're working, (question)

5 He's writing a letter, [question)

6 He's eating, (negative)

7 I'm not working, (positive)

8 She's studying at the moment, (question)

9 I'm sleeping, (negative)

10 You're reading my newspaper, (question)

11 She's writing a letter, (question)

12 He's talking to Mary, (question)

13 They're not playing football, (positive)

14 He's listening to the radio, (question)

15 You're playing with my football, (question)

 

2. In your notebook, write these sentences putting the verbs into the correct tense (Present Simple/Present Continuous):

1 She (read) at the moment. She's reading at the moment.

2 (You go) to work by car? Do you go to work by car?

3 I (not watch} television every night. don't watch television every night.

4 I (not watch) television at the moment. I'm not watching television at the moment.

5 We (see) our parents every week.

6 (You listen) to the radio now?

7 I (not get up) at seven o'clock every morning.

8 Peter (talk) to Susan now.

9 (They work) in the restaurant at the weekends?

10 She (listen) to the radio in her bedroom at the moment.

11 They (not come) to school every day.

12 (You work) now?

13 The children (go) to bed at eight o'clock.

14 1 (leave) the office every day at five.

15 I'm sorry i can't talk to you now. I (go) out.

16 (Peter and Jane work) in London at the moment?

17 (Mary and Susan drive) to the office every day?

18 We (go) to the beach now.

19 (John listen) to the radio at the moment?

20 (Your parents sit) in the garden now?

21 The film (start) every night at eight o'clock

22 They (not go) to the cinema very often.

23 (You go) into the office every month?

24 I (not study) at the moment.


 

UNIT 6

RUSSIA

Pre-Reading task: What are Russias distinctive features, do you think (geographical, cultural, social, economic)?

 

My home country is Russia. The territory of Russia lies in the Eastern part of Europe and in the Northern part of Asia. In area it is one of the largest countries in the world. Russia is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans. It borders on 14 countries, including the former republics of the USSR. Russia occupies much of easternmost Europe and northern Asia, stretching from Norway to the Pacific Ocean and from the Black Sea to the Arctic Ocean. When you travel across Russia by train, you can see beautiful intact forests, plains, lakes and rivers.

The climate of Russia ranges from temperate to Arctic continental. European Russia receives some maritime climatic influence from the Baltic and Black seas and the Atlantic Ocean; from the Urals to the Far East, the climate is fully continental. The Pacific Ocean provides the southern Far East with warm, humid monsoon conditions. Winter weather varies from short-term and cold along the Black Sea to long-term and frigid in northern Siberia. Summer conditions range from warm on the steppes to cool along the Arctic coast.

The Russian Federative Republicis set by the Constitution of 1993. Under the Constitution Russia is a Presidential Republic. The federal government consists of three branches: legislative, executiveandjudicial. Each of them is checked and balanced by the President.

The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of the two chambers. The upper chamber is the Council of Federation. The lower chamber is the State Duma. The President, elected for 4 years, makes treaties and appoints ministers to be approved by the Federal Assembly.

The executive power belongs to the Government, which is headed by the Prime Minister. The first action of the Prime Minister on appointmentis to form the Cabinet. The judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and regional courts. On 2 March 2008, Dmitry Medvedev was elected President of Russia, and Putin became Prime Minister.

The Russian military is divided into the Ground Forces, Navy, and Air Force.

Moscow is the capital of Russia and the seat of the Government. Today the state symbol of Russia is a three-coloured banner. It has three horizontal stripes: white, blue and red. There are several versions concerning the colour of the stripes. According to one version, the white stripe symbolizes the earth, the blue one stands for the sky and the red stripe symbolizes liberty. According to another version, the red colour is associated with courage, the blue one stands for nobility and the white expresses spiritual strive.

Russia is very rich in natural resources. It has deposits of coal, iron ores, oil, natural gas, gold and diamonds. Russias northerly location limits available agricultural land, which is concentrated in the area between the Black and Caspian seas, along the borders of Ukraine and Kazakhstan, and in southern and western Siberia. Russias forest management has declined sharply in recent years, and commercial clear-cutting is reducing the forest stock at a rapid rate. Coastal and river waters have supported an extensive fishing industry, which also is threatened by pollution and poor regulation.

According to the 2002 census, the largest ethnic groups were Russians (80%), Tatars, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Chuvash, Chechens, and Armenians, each of which accounted for at least 1 million residents. The official language is Russian; about 100 other languages are spoken.

Russia traditionally has had a highly educated population. According to the 2002 census, 99.5 percent of the population above age 10 was literate. The constitution guarantees the right to free preschool, basic general, and secondary vocational education. Nine years of basic general education are compulsory, from age six until age 15.

Russia has always played an important role in the world. The home policy of our state is aimed at achieving peace among our citizens, politic and economic stability. The main principles of our foreign policy are freedom, independence of every state, coexistence, cooperation and peace all over the world.

 

VOCABULARY

 

legislative ['ledgislεtiv] - legislature ['ledgislεtƒε] -

executive [ig'zekjutiv] - judicial[dgu'di:ƒiεl] -

to vest [vest] - to initiate [i'ni:ƒieit]

ground forces -

Air Force - -

census

clear-cutting forest -

supreme [sju'pri:m] ; , Supreme Court -

coexistence[kεueg'istens] ;

1. Give English equivalents to the following words and collocations:

; ; ; () ; ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; (): , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; /; ; ; ; ; ; , , , , , ; ; ; - .

 

2. Finish the sentences:

1. The vast territory of Russia lies in .

2. Russia occupies much of easternmost Europe and northern Asia, ...

3. When you travel across Russia by train,

4. The climate of Russias vast territory..

5. Winter weather varies from ... to .....

6. Summer conditions range from

7. The federal government consists of .....

8. The upper chamber is ..

9. The lower chamber is ..

10. The President, elected for 4 years,...

11. The first action of the Prime Minister .

12. The judicial branch is represented by ..

13. According to one version, the white stripe .., the blue one ..

14. It has deposits of .

15. Russias northerly location limits available agricultural land, which is ..

16. Coastal and river waters have supported .

17. According to the 2002 census, the largest ethnic groups were Russians, ....

18. The constitution guarantees the right to ..

19. Nine years of basic general education are ...

20. The main principles of our foreign policy are .

: 2016-08-29

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