Translate the text into Russian.
4. Use each of the following word combinations in sentences of your own:
travel across Russia by train
intact beautiful forests
The climate ranges from temperate to continental
the climate is fully continental
warm, humid monsoon conditions
the borders of Ukraine and Kazakhstan
at a rapid rate
basic general education
secondary vocational education
Retell the text.
Top Sixteen Reasons for Studying a Foreign Language: give your reasons for studying languages and fill in the gaps.
POINT OF GRAMMAR
an + vowel [әn]: an umbrella, an ocean, an economist
a + consonant [ә]: a ball, a boy, a book
The Indefinite Article.
-a = 'one'.
• a (or an) is used with countable nouns to indicate one.
Can I have a cup of tea?
I've got a daughter and two sons.
• a is not used before a plural noun (NOT I've got a sons).
• a is not used before uncountable nouns (NOT I want a petrol, please). But we use it when there is an adjective which describes the noun: a highly educated population, an important role
Don't forget a:
—Do you want a cup of tea? (not 'Do you want cup of tea?')
—Alice works in a bank,(not 'in bank')
—I want to ask a question,(not 'ask question')
—When I was a child,I liked reading stories.
- Birmingham is a large city in central England.
-an (not a) before a/e/i/o/u:
—They live in an old house, (not 'a old house.')
—A mouse is an animal. It's a small animal.
—Can you give me an example, please?
- This is an interesting book.
- I bought a hat and an umbrella.
also an hour(‘h’ is not pronounced: an (h)our)
but a university a Europeancountry
We use a/an for jobs etc.:
- 'What's your job?'
'I'm a dentist.' (not 'I'm dentist.')
- 'What does she do?' 'She's an engineer.
- Would you like to be a teacher?
- Beethoven was a composer.
- Picasso was a famous painter.
- Are you a student?
another(an + other) is one word (not 'an other'):
- Can I have another cupof coffee?
- Open another window.It's very hot.
1. Fill in the indefinite article: a or an.
Enumerate the nouns that need an indefinite article. Which nouns from the list need no article at all?
Fill in the indefinite article: a or an.
1. __ elephant
2. __ university
3. __ umbrella
4. __ ticket
5. __ honest man
6. __ half-hour lessons
7. __ one-hour lesson
8. __ useful book
9. __ X-ray
10. __ European
11. __ hand
12. __ underpass
13. __ unit
14. __ CD
15. __ exam
16. __ school
What are these things? Choose from the list.
1. A duck is ___
2. A carrot is ___
3. A rose is ___
4. A piano is ___
5. A cow is ___
6. Picasso is ___
7. Jamaica is ___
8. Tennis is ___
9. A hammer is ___
10. Everest is ___
11. Boston is ___
12. Beethoven is ___
13. Jupiter is ___
14. A pear is ___
15. The Amazon is ___
Write sentences from the brackets (). Write a or an where necessary.
The Indefinite Article A and the Definite Article The
• a is used with countable nouns to indicate one (>- Exercise 8):
I've got two bikes and a car.
She's a lawyer.
He's a teacher.
• a or the is not usually used before names of villages, towns, streets, cities,
countries or continents: She lives in Paris. We went to India.
• the is used when we speak about things that we know or can understand or when a word is used a second time: He gave me a knife and a spoon. The spoon was dirty. I bought a pen and some paper, but I left the pen in the shop, the 2002 census
• the is used before names of seas, rivers, groups of islands or mountains, kingdoms, republics, deserts, plural names of countries: the Atlantic Ocean, the River Thames, the Netherlands, the Arctic (land and sea), the Antarctic (land and sea), the Alps, the United States of America, the United Arab, the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Baltic, the Urals, the Far East, Emirates, the Sahara, the United Kingdom, the Nile, the Gobi Desert
• the is used in the + noun + of: the Constitution of 1993, the capital of Russia, the life of Napoleon
• the is used when only one object exists: the earth, the sun, the River Thames, the President, the legislative power, the State Duma, the Federal Assembly, the Government, the Prime Minister, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, at a rapid rate, the world
• the is used with adjectives in the superlative degree:the largest ethnic groups
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