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Fill in the blanks with a suitable word from your active vocabulary. Translate the sentences into Russian.

Failure; consequently; dream n; fail; event (2); job (2); prefer (2); rest n; rest v; change v; changeable; jobless; heart; leave v; depend; believe; wish; uneventfully; dream v (2); discussion (2).

1. I won’t press you to go back there at all ______, just now but you must promise me to take a good ______ when your vacation begins this summer. 2. But I want you to remember one thing: if you get into trouble over this, if you die, you will break my ______. 3. ______ in answer to his letter Arthur received a check to cover his expenses and a cold permission to do as he ______ about his holidays. 4. When Arthur had ______ his wet socks and came down to breakfast he found the child seated on the Padre’s knee. 5. The roses hung their heads and ______ under the still September clouds and the water splashed and murmured softly among the pebbles of the shore. 6. The autumn and winter passed ______, following the usual routine. 7. When the lecture and the long ______ which followed it were finished, he went up to Gemma who was still sitting in the corner of the room. 8. Look here, we had better ______ this subject alone, you are always intolerant when you talk about Protestants. 9. The conversation soon drifted into a ______ of university regulations, a burning question of that day. 10. I can well ______ it; he is a man whom no one can ______ to admire, a most noble and beautiful nature. 11. He hadn’t bothered to take the ______ at the bank, because there was so much he had to do before the wedding that a new ______ would really be a problem. 12. But he didn’t want to tell Sarah what he thought about her husband, he ______ to keep silence on the matter. 13. Jane promised she would go home at the end of the afternoon, ______ and recover from the days excitement. 14. She finally understood that her marriage to Freddie was a ______; a source of endless grief and disappointment. 15. Peter and Jane planned to spend the weekend in Southampton for the big ______. 16. Though she was 25 already, she fully ______ on her father and mother. 17. For the last five-six months Freddie’s mood has become so ______ that Sarah didn’t know how to behave. 18. The greeting was over till the evening when the younger men returned from their labour on the farms and the ______ from their hunting for food. 19. “There is nothing the matter with me. The colonel will tell you so if you ask him”. “I ______ to form my own conclusions”, Montanelli answered quietly. 20. “Arthur, is it really you? I have ______ so often that you had come back to me; and then have woken and seen only the darkness. How can I know I shall not wake again and find it all a ______?”


9. Make up a dialogue to illustrate the difference between custom and habit. Study the example.


Ben: I can never make out which is a custom and which is a habit.

Mr. S.: You see, Ben, a habit is something that a person has been doing for a long time.

Ben: Then I always look up new English words in my dictionary. Can I say that’s a habit?

Mr. S.: Yes, it’s a good thing to make a habit of looking up words in a dictionary.

Ben: And what about a custom?

Mr. S.: Custom is something that belongs to a large number of people of the same group or religion: for example Christians or Moslems.

Ben: Oh, now I see.

Mr. S.: Well, it’s the custom of Moslems to fast during the month of Ramadan.

Ben: Is there any time when it’s the custom of Christians to fast?

Mr. S.: Of course, there is Lent. Fasting in Lent often means going without meat.

Ben: And when is Lent? Is it before Christmas?

Mr. S.: No, Lent is forty days before Easter.

10. Speak On:


  1. Good habits, bad habits.
  2. Customs of your country.
  3. Customs and traditions observed by your family.

Illustrate the proverbs with examples from your life experience.


  1. Custom is a second nature.
  2. When in Rome do as the Romans do.




The Past Tense

Past Simple: question and negative


• The past simple question form is the same for all persons (I, you, he, she, etc.) and all verbs:


Did Subject Infinitive
  Did   I he she it we you they leave? go? stay?  


• The past simple negative form is the same for all persons and all verbs:


Subject did not Infinitive
I He She It We You They   did not didn't   leave. go. stay.  



Write these sentences in the past simple, keeping them as questions or negatives.

1 Do they agree? Did they agree?

2 They don't drive. They didn't drive.

3 When do they go?

4 Where do they work?

5 Do you understand?

6 I don't know

7 He doesn't like it

8 What do you think?

9 She doesn't live here

10 How much does it cost?

11 When do you get up?

12 1 don't swim

13 She doesn't speak Spanish

14 We don't understand

15 When do they leave?

16 When does he go to school?

17 Do you like Germany?

18 When do you go out?

19 She doesn't smoke

20 He doesn't know

Past Simple: positive - regular verbs


• Regular verbs have the same form for all persons (I, you, he, she,etc.):


Subject Infinitive + ed
I He She It We You They     stayed.



• Spelling:

a) verbs ending in e add only d:

I love — / loved

b) verbs ending in y change y to led:

I try — I tried

c) most verbs ending in a single vowel + single consonant change to single

vowel + double consonant:

/ travel —• travelled

We stop —we stopped


• For a past action or state. The action can be a short one:

I askeda question.

She missedthe bus.

or a long one:

/ walked for hours.

I livedhere for years.

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