1. confidevi/t 1) to feel trust in smb., e. g. I can confide in him. 2) to
tell secrets to, e. g. He confided his troubles (secret, plans, fears) to me.

confidencen 1) strong trust, e. g. I have no confidence in such people (in his ability, in his opinion). He enjoys everybody's confidence. What she says does not inspire confidence. I shan't betray your confidence. She took me into her confidence. 2) assurance, belief that one is right or that one will succeed, e. g. He has too much confidence in himself (self-confidence). His lack of confidence is most annoying. His comforting words gave me confidence. 3) secret which is confided to smb. (often in pi.), e. g. I listened to the girl's confidences with a mixed feeling of pity and disapproval.

confidentadj 1) sure, e. g. We were not confident of success. 2) showing confidence, as a confident manner, smile, voice, tone.

confidentialadj private or secret, as confidential information, matter, correspondence, voice, etc.

2. startvi/t 1) to begin to move; to set out; to begin a journey, as to
start early (late, at 6 p. m., etc.); to start on a trip (a journey, an excursion)
for the mountains; 2) to begin to do smth., as to start work (business,
conversation); to start working, running, crying; 3) to cause, to enable, to
begin, e. g. How did the war (the fire, the quarrel) start? 4) to set going, as
to start a car (a motor, a newspaper); 5) to make a sudden movement (from
pain, shock, etc.), e. g. He started at the noise.

starting-pointn a place at which a start is made, e. g. The incident turned out to be a starting-point that set everything afloat.

startn 1) the act of starting, as the start of a race; at the journey's start, e. g. That gave her a start in life, from the startfrom the very beginning, e. g. Everything went wrong from the start, from start to finish.,e. g. This is the whole story from start to finish. 2) a sudden movement caused by pain (shock, etc.), e. g. He sprang up (awoke) with a start. You gave me a s^aft, I must say. by fits and startsirregularly, e. g. Research work cannot be done by fits and starts.

3. confusevt 1) to mistake one thing or person for another; to mix up,
as to confuse names (words or persons); to confuse facts (dates),
e. g. They look so much alike that I always confuse them. Old people
often confuse dates and figures. 2) to make a person feel uncomfortable,

e. g. Everybody's attention confused her and she was at a loss for words. syn. embarrass; to be (feel, seem, get) confused (embarrassed),e. g. He

seemed a trifle confused (embarrassed).

confusionn 1) the state of being confused; disorder, as to lie (be, be thrown about) in confusion, e. g. His things lay in confusion on the sofa. His thoughts were in confusion. He remained calm in the confusion of battle, syn. mess;2) shame, embarrassment, e. g. His confusion was obvious. 3) mistaking one thing for another, as the confusion of sounds, letters.

confusingadj embarrassing, e. g. An examiner must not ask confusing questions (not to put the student out). Don't ask embarrassing questions (not to make one uncomfortable).

confusedadj 1) embarrased, e. g. The girl looked confused. 2) inconsistent or muddled, e. g. His tale (answer) was confused. He was unable to put his confused ideas into shape.

4. dropvt/i 1) to allow to fall, as to drop a glass (a handkerchief, etc.);
to drop bombs; to drop a letter in a pillar-box (a coin in a slot); 2) to give
up, to stop doing smth., as to drop one's work (studies, a habit); to drop
smoking, e. g. Let's drop the argument (the subject). 3) (used with many
different meanings) as to drop a subject; to drop a person at some place;
to drop a line; to drop (smb.) a hint (on smth.); to drop one's voice (eyes);
to drop one's friends; to drop anchor; 4) to fall to the ground, to the floor,
into smth., as to drop with fatique; to drop into a chair; to drop on (to)
one's knees; to drop dead; leaves (apples, blossoms) drop, e. g. It was so
quiet, you might have heard a pin drop. 5) to become less or smaller or
weaker, as the temperature, the wind, one's voice, prices may drop; to
drop in
to see smb. at some place, e. g. Several friends dropped in to tea.
to drop off1) to go away, become fewer, as one's friends (customers, the
doctor's practice) may drop off; 2) to fall asleep, e. g. He dropped off
during the performance, to drop behindto fall behind, e. g. The two girls
dropped behind the rest of the party.

dropnl)a small round portion of liquid, a small quantity of liquid, as drops of water (perspiration, rain, etc.); to drink smth. to the last drop, take ten drops a day; 2) sudden fall, as a sudden (unexpected, sharp, slight) drop in prices (temperature, etc.).

5. mindvt 1) to attend to or take care of, e. g. Mind your own business.
Please, mind the baby (the fire). 2) to obey, e. g. The child won't mind his
granny. 3) to be careful of, e. g. Mind the step (the dog). Mind! There is
a bus coming. Mind the traffic rules. 4) to object to, be afraid of, e. g. Do
you mind my smoking (if I smoke)? I don't mind it a bit. (Yes, I mind
it very much.) Would you mind closing the window? Never mind
(an answer to an apology).

mindn 1) intellectual faculties, as the great minds of the world; to be in one's right mind, e. g. Lomonosov was one of the greatest minds of the world of his time. Are you in your right mind to say such things? 2) memory or remembrance, as to come to one's mind; to bear in mind,

e. g. The incident gradually came to my mind. Bear in mind that you are to be here at six sharp. 3) one's thoughts, opinions, wishes, as to make up one's mindto come to a decision, e. g. I've made up my mind and I'll stick to my decision, to change one's mind.,e. g. I won't change my mind whatever is said, to be in two mindsto hesitate, e. g. I'm in two minds and can't give you a definite answer now. to speak one's mindto say what one thinks, e. g. Don't beat about the bush, speak your mind, to give a person a piece of one's mindto tell him frankly what one thinks of him, e. g. I shall give you a piece of my mind, unpleasant as that may be. to have a (no) mind toto be disposed to, e. g. She had no mind to answer such questions, to have smth. on one's mindto be anxious about smth., e. g. She seemed to have something on her mind and could not concentrate.

-mindedadj in compounds having the kind of mind indicated, as absent-minded, fair-minded, broad-minded, narrow-minded, e. g. She is very absent-minded and always leaves her things behind.

6. practisevt 1) to do regularly, as practise early rising, a method of work; to practise what one preaches, e. g. If only he'd practised what he'd preached! 2) to pursue the profession (of a lawyer or a doctor), as to practise law, medicine, e. g. It has been long since I practised medicine. 3) to do again and again, as to practise tennis, the piano, e. g. She practises the piano for an hour every day.

practicen 1) action as opposed to theory, e. g. The method is rather simple in practice, and very effective, to put into practiceto carry out, as to put into practice a theory, a plan, an idea, a suggestion, e. g. The theory seems right, but we must think of how to put it into practice. 2) systematically repeated action, as much, regular, constant, sufficient practice, e. g. What you need is more practice. Look how precise the movements of the worker are, practice shows, to be in (out of) practiceto be able (unable) to do smth. well, e. g. I used to be a good chessplayer, but I'm out of practice now. 3) habit or custom, e. g. It was then the practice (or a common practice). After supper Dad went for a walk as was his usual practice. 4) the work of a doctor or a lawer, e. g. Doctor N. has retired from practice. Manson had a large practice. He was a young lawyer with no practice at all.

practitionern practising doctor or lawyer, e. g. Andrew Manson worked as a general practitioner.

practicaladj useful, as practical advice, results, benefit, help, matters, use, application, considerations, difficulties (difficulties in putting smth. into practice), e. g. It's of no practical use. There were practical difficulties. They used to play practical jokes on each other and neither ever got offended.

practicallyadv virtually, e. g. Practically everyone was willing to help.

7. oddadj 1) (of numbers) not even, e. g. 1, 3, 5 are odd numbers.

2) used of one of a pair when the other is missing, as an odd shoe or glove;

3) used of one or more members of a set when separated from the rest, as

4) two odd volumes of an encyclopaedia; 4) extra, over, as thirty odd years, fifty and some odd miles; 5) occasional, not regular, as odd jobs; 6) strange, not ordinary, surprising, as an odd person (way, manner; look, appearance, behaviour), e. g. How odd!

5) Note: strange, odd and queer are synonyms; strange means out of the natural order of things; odd refers to what one does not ordinarily see and is surprised at; queer implies some doubt as whether all is well, e. g. a queer feeling, a queer affair.

6) oddly adv in an odd manner; oddly enough strange to say, e. g. Oddly enough, she did not turn up at the party.

7) odds Ji pi. the chances in favour, e. g. The odds are against us. odds and ends remnants, e. g. What's to be done with all these odds and ends of the paper?

8) 8. concern n 1) that in which one is interested, e. g. It's no concern
of mine. It's my own concern. What concern is it of yours? 2) anxiety,
worry, as the teacher's concern over the pupil's progress.

9) concern vt 1) to have to do with, e. g. That doesn't concern you at all. As far as I'm concerned .... He is said to be concerned in this affair. (He is said to be mixed up in this affair.) 2) to be busy with, interest oneself in, e. g. Don't concern yourself with other people's affairs. I'm not concerned about details. 3) to take trouble about, e. g. Lord Illingworth had never been concerned about his son.

10)concerned adj anxious, e. g. He has a very concerned look. ant. unconcerned.

11)concerning prep about, regarding, e. g. Montmorency manifested great curiosity concerning the kettle.

12)9. sympathy n a fellow-feeling, a feeling of pity, as to arouse (show,
express) sympathy, e. g. You have my sympathies. I have no sympathy
with (for) idle people. I feel some sympathy for her, she is unhappy.

13)sympathize vt to be interested in and approve of, e. g. I sympathize with you (your ambition to be a writer).

14)sympathetic adj 1) guick to understand and share other people's feelings, e. g. A good doctor is always sympathetic, ant. unsympathetic; 2) having or showing kind feeling towards others, e. g. I felt grateful to her for her sympathetic words.

15)sympathetically adv kindly, e. g. She smiled sympathetically.

16)10. fail vi/t 1) not to succeed, e. g. My attempt has failed. I tried to
convince him, but failed. The maize failed that year. 2) not to pass, as
to fail in mathematics, in an exam; 3) to break down, to die away, to let
down, e. g. His courage failed him. His heart failed him. His sight (health)
was beginning to fail him. I'll never fail you. Words failed me. 4) to
neglect, omit, e. g. He never fails to write to his mother. Don't fail to let
me know. I fail to see your meaning. I could not fail to perceive who she

17)failure n 1) lack of success, e. g. Success came after many failures. His efforts ended in failure. 2) a person who fails, e. g. She was a complete failure as an actress.

18)Word Combinations and Phrases

19)to alter manners (habits, points of 20)view, plans, one's way of living, 21)a dress) a ring at the bell (a knock at the 22)door) to reach out (up, down) for smth. to have a fancy for smth. to keep body and soul together to drive up to a house (come up 23)to the door)

24)to be littered with books

25)(papers, lumber, etc.) to have not the least notion (of

26)smth.) to remind smb. of smth. a dim recollection shabby clothes (house, man,

27)street) to be (feel, make oneself) at

28)home somewhere to exchange smth. (for smth.)





Topical Vocabulary

1. Virtuous (good) characteristics:affable, amiable, good-natured, good-humoured, kind, kind-hearted, communicative, sociable, friendly, modest, discreet, generous, considerate, attentive, thoughtful, earnest, sincere, enthusiastic, calm, quiet, composed, self-possessed, honest, merciful, impartial, just, patient, forebear-ing, sympathetic, respectable, cordial, broad-minded, witty, intelligent, dignified, capable, benevolent, philanthropic, scrupulous, consistent, easy-going, affectionate, devoted, loyal, courageous, persevering, industrious, hard-working, sweet, gentle, proud.

2. Evil (bad) characteristics:ill-natured, unkind, hard-hearted, reserved, uncommunicative, unsociable, hostile, haughty, arrogant, dashing, showy, indiscreet, unscrupulous, greedy, inconsistent, tactless, insincere, hypocritical, false, vulgar, double-faced, indifferent, dispassionate, fussy, unrestrained, dishonest, cruel, partial, intolerant, conceited, self-willed, wilful, capricious, perverse, insensible, inconsiderate, servile, presumptuous, deceitful, harsh, sulky, sullen, obstinate, coarse, rude, vain, impertinent, impudent, revengeful.


Unit Eight


1.Frank Ashurst and his friend Robert Garton were on a tramp.

Perhaps he struck her as strange.

They were on a hike.

We shall go on an excursion tomorrow.

I shall start on a tour next Sunday.

He will set out on a trip early in the morning.

The whole affair strikes me as queer.

The suggestion struck him as tempting.

That I found nobody at home struck me as odd.

Her question struck me as naive.

According to their map they hadstill some seven miles to go.

We have two hours to while away.

They still have a lot to do.

Jane still has two exams to take.

He has letters to mail.

Both were (as) thin as rails.

The boy is really as obstinate as a mule. She was as good as her word.

You're as sulky as a bear, what's the matter? And let me tell you he is as cross as two sticks.

Garton's hair was a kind ofdark unfathomed mop.Passing through a sort of porch...

It was a sort of box.

It was a kind of game.

We spent the night in a sort of hut.

Garton was like someprimeval beast.She looked like a wild flower.

He looked like a huge bear. The cloth looks like silk.



1. to make Chagford:to reach Chagford a town in Devonshire.

2. Ashurst's football knee:the knee that Ashurst hurt in playing football.

3. thin as rails:It is a stable set-expression, somewhat hackneyed and trite. The list of such similes in English is fairly long. They do not create fresh and vivid images, but are frequently used by the writers as they are easily understood and grasped by the reader.

4. round-the-corner:absent-minded.

5. was talking through his hat:was talking nonsense.

6. took up the catechism:continued questioning smb. closely.

7. Scotch fir:common North European pine.

8. we've gone down(at Oxford and Cambridge): we've left the University.

9. strame, sittin', an':dialectical forms in Devonshire and Wales.

10. Theocritus[Gfokntas]: 270 B. C. Greek pastoral poet.

11. the river Cherwell['tjawal]: a river in Oxfordshire.


12. maiden(chiefly liter.): a girl, a young unmarried woman.

13. He thought of Theocritus, and the river Cherwell, of the moon, and the maiden with dewy eyes:This is an enumeration, the members of which belong to different spheres. This stylistic device is used by the writer to reveal the character's feelings and meditations.


Vocabulary Notes

1. trackn 1) a mark left by someone or smth. that has passed, as the tracks of an animal (a car); to leave tracks, to follow the tracks of; tracks in the snow (in the sand); to be on the track of smb.to be in pursuit of smb., e. g. The police were on the track of the thief, to cover up one's tracksto conceal one's movements, e. g. The man was sure he had covered up his tracks. 2) a path, a narrow rough road, as a track through a forest (a field); a narrow, hardly visible track; the beaten trackthe usual way of doing things, e. g. Andrew was not a person to follow the beaten track, to keep (lose) track ofto keep in (lose) touch with, e. g. You should keep track of current events. 3) a set of rails on which trains or trams run, as a single (double) track.

2. outlinen 1) lines showing shapes or boundary, as an outline map (of Africa, Europe, etc.); the outline (outlines) of a building (trees, mountains), e. g. Lanny could hardly make out the outlines of the big house in the dark. 2) a general statement of the chief points of smth., as an outline of a composition (a lecture, a book); in outlinedone roughly, told briefly, e. g. Bosinney showed Soames the design of the house in outline. I can tell you the article in outline.

outlinevt to give the main points of, as to outline a certain historical period (events, etc.); to be outlined against smth.to stand out against smth., e. g. She was outlined against the sky.

3. roughadj 1) (of surfaces) uneven, irregular, coarse, as rough paper, a rough road, rough hair; 2) moving or acting violently, not calm, mild, or gentle, as a rough sea, a rough crossing, a rough day, a rough child, rough luck; 3) unskilled; incomplete, not perfect, as a rough sketch, a rough translation; a rough diamondan uncut diamond; fig. a good-hearted but uncultured fellow; 4) (of conduct or speech) rude;
uncivil, as rough reply, rough words; a rough tonguerude angry speech; 5) (of sounds) harsh, discordant, as a rough voice; syn. coarse, rude,

4. eyen 1) the part of the body with which we see, e. g. We see with our eyes. It was so interesting that I couldn't take (keep) my eyes off it.
to keep an eye onto watch carefully, e. g. Cook asked me to keep an eye on the meat while she was away, to open a person's eyes to smth.to

bring it to his notice, e. g. His words opened my eyes to their relations. to make eyes at (a person)to look lovingly at; tosee eye to eye with a personto see smth. in the same way, agree entirely with, e. g. I regret I don't see eye to eye with you on that subject, the apple of one's eyething or person dearly loved, e. g. His daughter is the apple of his eye. with an eye towith a view to, hoping for, e. g. I didn't come here for pleasure but with an eye to business, to close one's eyes toto refuse to see, e. g. You should close your eyes to her misbehaviour, to run one's eyes over (through)to glance at, examine quickly, e. g. He quickly ran his eyes over the page, to have an eye forto be able to see well or quickly, as to have an eye for beauty; 2) a thing like an eye, as the hole in the end of a needle, an electronic eye.

eyevt to watch carefully, as to eye a person with suspicion.

5. wondervt/i 1) to be anxious to know, e. g. I wonder who he is (what
he wants, why he is late, whether he'll come, if it is correct, how you can
be so tactless as to say that...). Who is he I wonder? What does he want
I wonder? 2) to be surprised, e. g. I wonder at your saying that.

wondern cause of surprise; a remarkable thing, e. g. Manned flights to space are the wonder of modern science. Her eyes are the wonder. A wonder lasts but nine days, (proverb) She had worked unsparingly at this task. It is no wonder that she overstrained herself. He refuses to help, and no wonder.

6. limpvi to walk lamely as when one leg or foot is stiff, injured, as
to limp on one's right (left) foot, e. g. Ashurst was limping along. The man
limped on. The wounded soldier limped off the battle-field.

limpn (usu. sing, with ind. art.) a lame walk, as to walk with a limp; to have a bad limp.

lameadj 1) not able to walk properly, as a lame man (child, horse); to be lame in the right (left) foot; to go lame; a lame ducka disabled person (a failure); 2) unconvincing; unsatisfactory, as a lame excuse (argument, story, explanation), e. g. His explanation sounded lame.

7. putvt/i 1) to place, e. g. Put more sugar in your tea. Put the book
in its right place, the flowers into water, a mark against his name. George
put an advertisement in a newspaper. 2) to cause to be in a certain
position or state, e. g. Jim was put to prison. Put yourself in my place. Put
it out of your mind. Let's put the documents in order. The new manager
put an end to the slack discipline. She knew how to put him at his ease.
3) to express in words, e. g. I don't know how to put it. I wouldn't put it
that way. I've put it badly. To put in black and white. I'd like to put
a question to you. 4) to subject, as to put smb. to expense, inconvenience,

With postlogu.es

put asideto save, to move smth. away, e. g. Put aside the book. The man put aside some money for a rainy day.

put awayto set aside, as to put away one's things, books, a letter.

put backto replace, to move backwards, e. g. The clock was 5 minutes fast and he put back the hands. Put the dictionary back on the shelf, please.

put downto write down, e. g. Put down my address.

put down toto explain the cause, e. g. The flu was put down to damp weather.

put into speak in favour, as to put in a word for a friend.

put offto postpone, e. g. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. The meeting was put off till Monday (for two days), put offto escape doing doing smth. by making excuses, e. g. She tried to put me off with a jest (promises, excuses).

put onto assume or to pretend to have; to increase, e. g. His modesty is all put on. She went on a diet, not to put on weight. We must put on the pace, otherwise we'll be late.

put outto cause to stop burning; to confuse or annoy, e. g. Put out the candle (the fire, the lamp, the gas). He was very much put out by the unexpected delay.

put throughto put in communication with smb. by telephone, e. g. Put me through to the manager, please.

put upto raise or to provide food and lodging or to lodge, e. g. The boy put up his hand eager to answer the teacher's question. We shall put up at an inn for the night. The landlady agreed to put us up if we did not mind to share one room.

put up withto bear, e. g. I can't and won't put up with all this noise.

8. shyadj uncomfortable in the presence of others, as a shy person
(boy, girl); a shy smile, e. g. Amelia wasn't shy of showing George her

shynessn, e. g. She spoke without shyness. shylyadv, e. g. She dropped her eyes shyly.

9. stretchvt/i 1) to extend or draw; to strain to the utmost, e. g. Silk
socks stretch, woollen ones shrink. They stretched a wire across the road.
He rose, stretched himself and made for the bathroom,. He stretched out
his hand with the letter, to stretch one's legsto exercise one's legs after
a long period of sitting. Let's go for a stroll to stretch our legs. 2) to lie
at full length, e. g. He stretched himself out on the lawn.

stretchn an unbroken period of time; at a stretchwithout stopping, e. g. He drove the car five hours at a stretch.

outstretchedadj stretched or spread out, e. g. His outstretched hand remained in the air.

10. hold (held, held)vt/i 1) to have and keep fast in or with the hands, e. g. He was holding a book in his hands, to hold on (to smth.)to keep one's grasp, e. g. Robinson was holding on to a branch. 2) to keep or support oneself in a certain attitude, e. g. Hold your arms out. Hold your head up. to hold out one's handto stretch out, e. g. Annie held out

her hand with a little package in it. to hold smth. back (from) to keep secret, e. g. You should hold back this news from them for a while. 3) to contain or be able to contain, e. g. A paper bag will hold sand, but it won't hold water. Sea water holds many salts in solution. 4) to restrain, e. g. I held my breath and listened, to hold off to keep at a distance, e. g. Hold your dog off. 5) to bring about; to conduct; to take part in, as to hold a meeting (examination, lecture, trial, etc.), e. g. The meeting will be held on Monday. They are going to hold a trial there. 6) to remain the same; to last; to continue, e. g. How long will the weather hold? to hold together to remain united, e. g. Hold together and you won't be defeated.

hold n the act, manner or power of holding, as to catch (get, take, have, keep, lose) hold of a thing or a person, e. g. He caught hold of the rope and climbed on board.

Word Combinations and Phrases

with one's eyes on smb. or smth. (with one's hair flung back) to show smb. the way to break in (into a conversation) to hurt or pain smb. (My leg is hurting me, hurts.) to take smb. in from head to heel to get smth. ready there's no room for one at a time

after their last (first, second) year together at college (the university, etc.)

according to smth. (their map, my watch, their orders or instructions, her words, etc.)

smooth hair (forehead, surface, board, paper, skin, road, sea)

to break into flower

to be in leaf (in flower)


1. Natural resources and attractions:minerals, (fresh) water- supplies (reservoirs), floods, rainfalls, vegetation, greenery, wood-
land(s), forestry, wildlife, animal kingdoms (population), flora and fauna, arable land (soil), cultivated land, open land, "green" belts, recreation areas, coastal areas, country (national) parks, clear landscapes, public open spaces.

2. Environment and man:to link man to nature, to adapt to environment, to be preoccupied with economic growth, unrestricted industrialization, the sprawl of large-built areas, industrial zoning, to upset the biological balance, to abuse nature, to disfigure (litter) the landscape, ecology, ecosystem, to be environment-conscious, to be environment-educated.

3. Environmental destruction and pollution:land pollution, derelict land, industrial wastes, the by-products of massive industrialization, to dump waste materials on land, extensive use of agrochemicals, the denudation of soil, the toxic fall-outs of materials, water pollution, a dropping water level, to face the freshwater supply problem, depletion of water resources, the disruption of water cycle, marine pollution, oil spillage, air (atmospheric) pollution, the air pollution index, to produce foul air, to exhaust toxic gases (fuel), combustion of fuel, concentrations of smoke in the air, dust content in the air, radiation, high (low) radioactivity, to store (disperse) radioactive wastes, noise offenders (pollutants), merciless killing of animals, destruction of animal habitats.

4. Nature conservation and environment protection:a global imperative for environment, global environmental security, to preserve ecosystems, to create disaster-prevention programmes, to harmonize industry and community, plants and people, conservation movement, to preserve woodlands, to protect and repro-

duce animal (fish, bird) reserves, to fight pollution, to install antipollution equipment, to minimize noise disturbance, to reduce pollution, to dispose garbage (litter, wastes) in designated areas.


: 2017-09-12

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