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Инфинитив и его функции в предложении




Unit 9

Тема: Металлургия

Грамматика:

1. Инфинитив (функции, ОИО, СИО).

2. Сослагательное наклонение глаголов.

3. Дополнительные придаточные предложения. Правило согласования времен.

4. Словообразующие предлоги.

5. Взаимные местоимения.

6. Математические действия.

Повторение:

1. Времена Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.

2. Модальные глаголы.

3. Действительный и страдательный залоги.

4. Грамматический разбор.

 

Тексты:

1. Metallurgy

2. Iron and Steel Manufacture

Лексика

attraction притяжение, привлекательность
axle ось, вал
beam балка; луч
blast сильный поток воздуха
bottom дно, основание
bright яркий, блестящий
building здание
chamber камера
charge заряд
compound смесь, состав
deposits залежи (полезных ископаемых)
expensive дорогой, дорогостоящий
furnaces blast furnace печь доменная печь
gangue рудная порода
gravity specific gravity сила тяжести, вес удельный вес
in spite of несмотря на
iron pig iron open-hearth iron wrought iron cast iron malleable cast iron железо, чугун чугун в чушках мартеновский чугун ковочное железо чугун ковкий чугун
knife (pl. knives) нож
malleable ковкий
moisture влага
oil масло, нефть
ore руда
pure чистый
repulsion отталкивание
roller ролик
rust ржавчина
state состояние
steel high-strength low-alloy steel tool steel alloy steel сталь высокопрочная низколегированная сталь инструментальная сталь легированная сталь
thin тонкий
thing вещь
to blow (blew, blown) to blow away дуть; сдувать
to call называть
to crush дробить, толочь
to extract extraction извлекать; извлечение
to fall (fell, fallen) падать
to float flotation плавать; плавучесть
to keep сохранять, держать
to obtain получать
to pour to pour away лить, наливать; сливать
to prepare preparation готовить, подготавливать; подготовка
to refine очищать
to relate relationship относиться, иметь отношение; отношение
to sink тонуть
to smelt расплавлять, плавить
to suspend приводить во взвешенное состояние; взвешивать (в жидкости)
to turn on to turn off включать; выключать
to wash to wash away мыть; смывать
wrought кованый

I. Вспомните, как переводятся следующие слова:



water; air; class; body; ship; food; bed; car; railway; wall.

II. Вспомните названия химических элементов:

C carbon; Cr chromium; Cu copper; Pb lead; Mn manganese; Mo molybdenum; Ni nickel; Ooxygen; Sisilicon; Wtungsten; Vvanadium.

III. Прочитайте и переведите слова, не пользуясь словарем. Обратите внимание на их произношение:

agent; apartment; architect; automobile; balance; capsule; concentration; constant; corrosive; criteria; decorative; diagnose; economic; electromagnet; electrostatic; extra; flux; geometry; gradual; intervention; machinery; macroscopic; magnetic; magnetite; magnetosphere; metallic; metallography; metallurgical; metallurgy; methodology; mineral; parameter; percent; percentage; periodically; petroleum; slag; strategy; substance; tank; tonnage; transformation; to construct; to fabricate; to group; to guarantees;

IV. Прочитайте, переведите и попытайтесь запомнить следующие слова:

· существительные

attraction; axle; beam; blast; bottom; building; chamber; charge; compound; deposits; extraction; flotation; furnaces; blast furnace; gangue; gravity; specific gravity; iron; open-hearth iron; wrought iron; cast iron; malleable cast iron; pig iron; knife (knives); moisture; oil; ore; preparation; refinery; relationship; repulsion; roller; rust; state; steel; high-strength low-alloy steel; stainless steel; tool steel; alloy steel; thing;

· прилагательные

bright; expensive; malleable; pure; thin; wrought;

· глаголы

to blow; to blow away; to call; to crush; to extract; to fall; to float; to keep; to obtain; to pour; to pour away; to prepare; to refine; to relate; to sink; to smelt; to suspend; to turn on; to turn off; to wash; to wash away;

· предлоги

in spite of.

V. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык:

a) the extraction of metals from ores; one of the simplest methods of mechanical separation; the bottom of the processing chamber; deposits of low concentration; the production of pig iron; the result of programmer error; limitation of self-generated vibrations; a better understanding of the relationship between processing, structure, and properties of the materials;

b) rock material; the most important present-day method; surface-active agents; chemical separation methods; lift mechanisms; the standard inaccuracy; CNC thread cutting machines;

c) the machine’s vibration; computer’s main memory; Yuri Gagarin's flight; humanity's knowledge.

Повторение

VI. Прочитайте предложения, найдите в них сказуемые, определите время и залог:

1.There are a number of factors which influence abrasive wear. 2. Multiple-cutting-edge tools have more than one cutting edge and usually move round the workpiece. 3. Before long, the machines could automatically change the specific cutting tools that were being used. 4. The researchers will have widely studied the machine’s vibration before they put it in mass production. 5. Of all the changes that occurred in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, the most significant transformation was the so called "scientific revolution." 6. The lift mechanisms being controlled by CNC are rotating slowly in the xy plane. 7. Some difficulties have been met in the classification of the technological parameters. 8. In the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of networking technology like Internet made computer networking almost universal. 9. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with structures of HSLA steels. 10. The use of high speed machining (HSM) had increased productivity by the 2000s.

VII. Определите, к какой группе времен относится инфинитив в скобках. Поставьте инфинитив в настоящее время, прочитайте предложения и переведите:

1. In general, operational memory (to be removed) when the power to the computer (to be turned off), but constant memory (to maintain) its data indefinitely. 2. Cutting fluids (to be used) for cooling and lubricating and (to be becoming) more and more popular. 3. These machine centres (to have changed) dramatically the way parts (to be made). 4. Since computers (to perform) the instructions they (to be given), bugs (to be) nearly always the result of programmer error. 5. The cutting tool (to be moving) slowly in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece. 6. Specific strategies (to have been developed), especially for limitation of self-generated vibrations. 7. Computer’s main memory (to come) in two principal types: operational memory or RAM and constant memory or ROM. 8. Each spindle (to contain) a piece of material that (to be being machined) at the same time. 9. HSLA (to have been processed) specially to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight.

VIII. Поставьте предложения из упражнения VII сначала в прошедшее время, а затем в будущее. Обратите внимание на то, что одно из этих девяти предложений поставить автоматически в будущее время нельзя.

IX. Прочитайте предложения, найдите сказуемое, определите залог. Задайте к каждому предложению общий вопрос и дайте отрицательный ответ:

1. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional, unconventional and presses. 2. In general, the shaper can produce almost any surface composed of simple elements. 3. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or horizontally, or anywhere in between. 4. The accuracy becomes worse as the grinding wheel wears, so it must be replaced periodically. 5. Many operations can be performed by ECM. 6. With special attachments, a lathe may also be used to produce flat surfaces or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece.

X. Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Поставьте их сначала в прошедшее время, а затем в будущее:

1. Cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear resistance at high temperatures. 2. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics. 3. The tool must be specially designed for the geometry of the device. 4. EDM can produce shapes unobtainable by any conventional machining process. 5. The grinding wheel must be moved to a correct position relative to the workpiece. 6. Materials such as hardened steel, carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM.

XI. Прочитайте предложения, найдите в них сказуемое, определите его время и залог. Замените залог на противоположный:

1. Natural science disciplines study natural phenomena. 2. Around 1885 similar investigations were previously performed by Prof. Martens at the Institute of Technology. 3. New machine tools will form the basis of modern industry in the 21st century. 4. The nature of wear has delayed its investigations. 5. As starting point Prof. Stribeck investigated the basic properties of roller bearings. 6. The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981.

XII. Сделайте грамматический разбор предложений. Определите время и залог сказуемых:

1. Under normal operating parameters, the property changes during exploitationnormally occur in three different stages: primary, secondary, tertiary.

2. EDM typically works with materials that are electrically conductive, although methods for machining ceramics with EDM have also been proposed.

 

The Infinitive

Таблица форм инфинитива

  Indefinite Tenses Continuous Tenses Perfect Tenses
Active voice to design to be designing to have designed
Passive voice to be designed --- to have been designed

 

Инфинитив имеет признаки, как существительного, так и глагола. Свойством инфинитива как глагола является его способность выражать характер действия (его длительность или завершенность) и залог.

Свойством инфинитива как существительного является его способность выполнять в предложении все те синтаксические функции, какие выполняет существительное, то есть инфинитив может быть: подлежащим, дополнением, обстоятельством, определением, именной частью составного именного сказуемого.

 

B A C D

Предполагали, чтовещество содержит примеси.

Глаголы**:

1. Употребляющиеся в Passive voice и выражающие умственную деятельность и чувственное восприятие – assume, believe, consider, expect, find, hear, know, observe, realize, say, show, see, suppose, think, understand.

2. Употребляющиеся в Active voice – appear, seem, prove (to be), turn out (to be), come out (to be), happen, chance.

3. Словосочетания – be likely, be unlikely, be not likely, be sure, be certain.

 

XVI. Пользуясь схемой ОИО переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:

1. The new method is believed to give good results. 2. The new method is believed to have given good results. 3. The transistor is considered to be one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century. 4. Experiments are intended to provide a better understanding of the relationship between processing, structure, and properties of the materials. 5. The results are expected not to differ with theoretical calculations. 6. Scientists are expected to publish their information so other scientists can do the same experiments to check their results. 7. Electronic components are generally intended to be connected together to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). 8. The questions being solved by the scientific community are expected not only to give the answer to this particular question but to help understand other problems. 9. The magnetosphere of Uranus, however, proved to be completely unique. 10. Shapers can be useful for job or repair shops where only one or a few pieces are required to be produced.

The Subjunctive I

Сослагательное наклонение

Сослагательное наклонение выражает возможность, предположительность или нереальность действия.

В русском языке сослагательное наклонение образуется сочетанием частицы бы с глаголом в прошедшем времени: «Я бы хотел отдохнуть (вчера, сегодня, завтра)».

Subjunctive I употребляется в простом предложении и в главном предложении сложноподчиненного предложения.

И если высказывание относится к настоящему или будущему времени, то Subjunctive I совпадает с формой Future in the Past:

  Would + простойинфинитив без частицыto  

I would like to have a rest (today, tomorrow) – Я бы хотел отдохнуть (сегодня, завтра)

А если высказывание относится к прошедшему времени, то Subjunctive I совпадает с формой Future Perfect in the Past:

  Would + перфектныйинфинитив без частицыto  

I would have done it (yesterday) – Я бы сделала это (вчера)

Вместо глагола “would” могут употребляться модальные глаголы “could”, “might”:

They could have done it. – Они могли бы это и сделать.

 

XVII. Прочитайте предложения в сослагательном наклонении. Обратите внимание, к какому времени относятся высказывания и переведите предложения:

1. This machine tool would not require vertical adjustment. 2. A typical bed would have X and Y travel, and be between three and four feet square with a rotary table. 3. In some cases, a computer might store some or all of its program in memory. 4. R&D probably would not have appeared within the machine tool industry alone. 5. Railway cars made of HSLA steels can carry larger loads because their walls are thinner than would be necessary with carbon steel of equal strength. 6. Hardware and software are interconnected, without software, the hardware of a computer would have no function. 7. However, without hardware software would be useless.

Правило согласования времен

Это правило относится только к дополнительным придаточным предложениям и устанавливает, что:

Если сказуемое главного предложения стоит в прошедшем времени, то сказуемые придаточных предложений тоже должны стоять в прошедшем времени. При этом: времена Present заменяются на времена Past; времена Past заменяются на Past Perfect; времена Future заменяются на Future-in-the-Past

 

He knew (that) – Он знал, что

Н.вр. a. Past Indefinite   b. Past Continuous she played tennis every day.   she was playing tennis. она играет в теннис каждый день. она сейчас играет в теннис.
Пр.вр. a. Past Perfect   she had lost her keys.   она потеряла свои ключи.  
Б.вр. Future in the Past she would call me up at 7 o’clock. она позвонит мне в 7 часов.  

XIX. Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Поставьте сказуемое главного предложения в прошедшее время, произведя при этом все необходимые изменения в придаточном предложении:

a) 1. Some engineers think that technology is simply "applied science". 2. The provider informs that these stainless steels were used where resistance to corrosion is important. 3. We plan that the base blocks will be equipped with four ports.

b) 1. They claim that HSK tooling is even better than BT tooling at high speeds. 2. We may observe that the geometry of this single-point tool has some advantages. 3. Nowadays we know that a lunar spacecraft will not sink into a thick layer of dust, as we thought before. 4. This indicates that milling machines were production machines, not tool room machines. 5. The manufacturers repot that extraction of iron from this ore into a workable metal will be much difficult. 6. The engineers must know that common engineering metals include alluminium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, nickel, titanium and zink. 7. He reports that the microscopic and macroscopic properties of the alloy have been studied by means of metallography. 8. They require that aluminium alloys and magnesium alloys were used for applications where strength and lightness are necessary.

Словообразующие предлоги

В русском языке глаголы образуются с помощью приставок. Например: шел, ушел, нашел, пришел, вышел, взошел, и.д.

В английском языке словообразующими являются не приставки, а предлоги, которые ставятся за глаголом и могут радикально изменить смысл основного глагола. Например: to look at - смотреть; to look for - искать.

XX. Найдите в словаре значение основного глагола и посмотрите, как изменяется его смысл от наличия предлога:

to turn off; to turn on; to carry on; to carry out; to wash away; to wash out; to wash up; to blow away; to fall back; to fall off; to keep away; to keep from; to keep together; to pour away; to pour out; to work on.

Взаимные местоимения

Взаимные местоимения each other, one another «друг друга», «один другого» употребляются как без предлогов, так и с предлогами, причем предлог ставится перед этими двойными местоимениями, а не между ними, как в русском языке.

Например:

with each other - друг с другом

without one another - друг без друга

by each other - друг другом

in each other - друг в друге

on one another - друг на друга и т.д.

 

XXI. Прочитайте и переведите предложения:

1.The Internet can allow people from all over the world to talk to each other. 2. When all of these axes are used in combination with each other, extremely complicated geometries can be made with relative ease with these machines. 3. The reducing agent and the oxygen in a metallic oxide combine with each other, leaving pure metal; while the flux and gangue combine with each other to form a slag that is liquid at the smelting temperature and thus can be poured away from the metal.

 

 

Математические действия

Addition. Сложение. a + b = c «a» plus «b» equals «c»; «a» plus «b» is «c»;
Subtraction. Вычитание. a – b = c «b» from «a» is «c»; «a» minus «b» is «c»; «a» minus «b» is equal to «c»;
Multiplication. Умножение. a • b = c «a» multiplied by «b» is «c»;
Division. Деление. a : b = c «a» divided by «b» is «c»;
Raise to power. Возведение в степень. a2 = b «a» to the second power is «b»;
Evolution. Извлечение из корня. √a =b the square root of «a» is «b».
XXII. Прочитайте следующие формулы по английски:

F = ma; Fs = y2/2 + (q2)/gy; V = ¾ πr3; Д = 113 √В.

XXIII. Напишите несколько формул, используя различные математические знаки и действия и прочитайте их по-английски.

Text A

Metallurgy

Metallurgy is considered to be science and technology of metals, including the extraction of metals from ores, the preparation of metals for use, and the study of the relationship between structures and properties of metals. Metallurgical processes consist of two operations: concentration, separating a metal from the rock material; and refining, producing the metal in a pure or nearly pure state appropriate for use. Three types of processes are employed both for concentration and refining: mechanical, chemical, and electrical. In most cases metallurgists recommended that a combination of these methods was used.

One of the simplest methods of mechanical separation is gravity separation. This process is based on the difference in specific gravity between metallic minerals and rock materials with which they are mixed. When crushed ore is suspended either in water or an air blast, the heavier metallic mineral particles fall to the bottom of the processing chamber, and the lighter components are blown or washed away.

Flotation is known to be the most important present-day method of mechanical concentration. In its simplest form, flotation is a modified gravity process in which crushed ore is mixed, usually with a liquid. The metal or metallic mineral floats while the other compounds sink. In most modern flotation processes, the floating is supported by an oil or other surface-active agents. Use of the flotation process would have made possible the exploitation of many ore deposits of low concentration.

Everybody knows that such ores as magnetite have magnetic properties. They can be concentrated by means of electromagnets.

Electrostatic separation employs an electric field to separate minerals of different electrical properties by using the attraction between unlike charges and the repulsion between like charges.

Chemical separation methods are, in general, the most important from the economic point of view. In present-day practice we often observe chemical separation be used as a second stage after mechanical concentration. A greater tonnage of refined metal could be obtained by smelting than by any other process. In smelting, the ore is heated with a reducing agent and a flux to a high temperature. The reducing agent and the oxygen in a metallic oxide combine with each other, leaving pure metal; while the flux and gangue combine with each other to form a slag that is liquid at the smelting temperature and thus can be poured away from the metal. The production of pig iron in blast furnaces is an example of smelting, and the process is also used to extract copper, lead, nickel, and many other metals from their ores.

 

Задания к тексту A:

I. Прочитайте и переведите следующие выражения:

including the extraction of metals from ores; the study of the relationship between structures and properties of metals; the metal in a pure or nearly pure state; both for concentration and refining; the difference in specific gravity between metallic minerals and rock materials; either in water or an air blast; in its simplest form; such ores as magnetite; the attraction between unlike charges and the repulsion between like charges; the most important from the economic point of view.

II. Найдите в предыдущем упражнении английские эквиваленты следующих русских выражений:

такие руды, как магнитный железняк (магнетит); изучение отношения между структурой и свойствами металлов; либо в воде, либо в сильном потоке воздуха; самое важное с экономической точки зрения; различие в удельном весе между металлически минералами материалами горной породы; как для концентрации, так и для очистки; включая извлечение металла из руд; притяжение между разноименными зарядами и отталкивание между одинаковыми зарядами; металл в чистом или почти чистом состоянии; в своей наипростейшей форме;

III. Прочитайте предложения. Определите время и залог сказуемых. Поставьте предложения в прошедшее время:

1.In most cases metallurgists recommend that a combination of these methods was used. 2. Everybody knows that such ores as magnetite have magnetic properties. 3. In present-day practice we often observe that chemical separation is used as a second stage after mechanical concentration.

IV. Прочитайте предложения, найдите в них инфинитив, определите его функцию:

1. Electrostatic separation employs an electric field to separate minerals. 2. The flux combines with gangue to form a slag that is liquid at the smelting temperature. 3. One of the simplest methods of mechanical separation is to separate metallic minerals and rock materials by their specific gravity. 4. Flotation to be used in this process will make possible the exploitation of many ore deposits of low concentration. 5. To use the flotation process in this particular case is impossible.

V. Сделайте грамматический разбор предложения:

The reducing agent and the oxygen in a metallic oxide combine with each other, leaving pure metal; while the flux and gangue combine with each other to form a slag that is liquid at the smelting temperature and thus can be poured away from the metal.

VI. Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

1. What is metallurgy?

2. What operations do metallurgical process consist of?

3. What processes are used for concentration and refining?

4. What is the simplest method of mechanical separation?

5. What is the process of gravity separation based on?

6. Is flotation the most important present-day method of mechanical concentration?

7. Use of the flotation process would have made possible the exploitation of many ore deposits of low concentration, wouldn’t it?

8. By what methods can magnetite concentrated?

9. What employs electrostatic separation?

10. What method of separation is the most important from the economic point of view?

11. What are the examples of chemical separation methods?

 

VII. Переведите текст А письменно.

 

Text B

Iron and Steel Manufacture

Iron and Steel Manufacture is technology related to the production of iron and its alloys, particularly those containing a small percentage of carbon. Steel in general is an alloy of iron and carbon, often with an admixture of other elements. Steels of various types contain from 0.04 percent to 2.25 percent of carbon. Open-hearth iron and wrought iron contain only a few hundredths of 1 percent of carbon. Cast iron, malleable cast iron, and pig iron contain amounts of carbon varying from 2 to 4 percent.

Classifications of Steel

Steels are grouped into five main classifications.

Carbon Steels

More than 90 percent of all steels are carbon steels. They contain varying amounts of carbon and not more than 1.65 percent manganese, 0.60 percent silicon, and 0.60 percent copper. Machines, automobile bodies, most structural steel for buildings, ships and bedsprings are among the products made of carbon steels.

Alloy Steels

These steels have a specified composition, containing certain percentages of vanadium, molybdenum, or other elements, as well as larger amounts of manganese, silicon, and copper than do the regular carbon steels. Automobile gears and axles, roller skates, and knives are some of the many things that are made of alloy steels.

High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels

Called HSLA steels, they are the newest of the five chief families of steels. They cost less than the regular alloy steels because they contain only small amounts of the expensive alloying elements. They have been specially processed, however, to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with frameworks of HSLA steels. Beams can be made thinner without sacrificing their strength, and additional space is left for offices and apartments.

Stainless Steels

Stainless steels contain chromium, nickel, and other alloying elements that keep them bright and rust resistant in spite of moisture or the action of corrosive acids and gases. Some stainless steels are very hard; some have unusual strength and will retain that strength for long periods at extremely high and low temperatures. Because of their shining surfaces architects often use them for decorative purposes. Stainless steels are used for the pipes and tanks of petroleum refineries and chemical plants, for jet planes, and for space capsules. Surgical instruments and equipment are made from these steels. In kitchens and in plants where food is prepared, equipment is often made of stainless steel.

Tool Steels

These steels are fabricated into many types of tools or into the cutting and shaping parts of power-driven machinery for various manufacturing operations. They contain tungsten, molybdenum, and other alloying elements that give them extra strength, hardness, and resistance to wear.

Задания к тексту B:

I. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим русским выражениям:

производство чугуна и стали; высокопрочные низколегированные стали; легированные стали; углеродистые стали; мартеновское и ковочное железо; инструментальные стали; без принесения в жертву прочности; ковкий чугун; нержавеющие стали; кузова автомобилей.

II. Сформулируйте в нескольких словах содержание каждого абзаца.

III. Напишите резюме к тексту.

IV. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What is Iron and Steel Manufacture?

2. What is the difference between various types of steel?

3. How many classes of steel are there?

4. What steel is the most common?

5. What is carbon steel used for?

6. What does alloy steel have as alloying elements?

7. What are made of alloy steels?

8. What steel is the newest of the five main families of steels?

9. Why do HSLA steels cost less than regular steels?

10. Where can HSLA steels be usually employed?

11. Which alloying elements do stainless steels contain?

12. Why do architects like to use stainless steels for decorative purposes?

13. What else can be made of stainless steels?

14. What makes tool steels extra strength, hardness, and resistance to wear?

V. Перескажите текст, используя в качестве плана вопросы предыдущего упражнения.

 

Unit 9

Тема: Металлургия

Грамматика:

1. Инфинитив (функции, ОИО, СИО).

2. Сослагательное наклонение глаголов.

3. Дополнительные придаточные предложения. Правило согласования времен.

4. Словообразующие предлоги.

5. Взаимные местоимения.

6. Математические действия.

Повторение:

1. Времена Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.

2. Модальные глаголы.

3. Действительный и страдательный залоги.

4. Грамматический разбор.

 

Тексты:

1. Metallurgy

2. Iron and Steel Manufacture

Лексика

attraction притяжение, привлекательность
axle ось, вал
beam балка; луч
blast сильный поток воздуха
bottom дно, основание
bright яркий, блестящий
building здание
chamber камера
charge заряд
compound смесь, состав
deposits залежи (полезных ископаемых)
expensive дорогой, дорогостоящий
furnaces blast furnace печь доменная печь
gangue рудная порода
gravity specific gravity сила тяжести, вес удельный вес
in spite of несмотря на
iron pig iron open-hearth iron wrought iron cast iron malleable cast iron железо, чугун чугун в чушках мартеновский чугун ковочное железо чугун ковкий чугун
knife (pl. knives) нож
malleable ковкий
moisture влага
oil масло, нефть
ore руда
pure чистый
repulsion отталкивание
roller ролик
rust ржавчина
state состояние
steel high-strength low-alloy steel tool steel alloy steel сталь высокопрочная низколегированная сталь инструментальная сталь легированная сталь
thin тонкий
thing вещь
to blow (blew, blown) to blow away дуть; сдувать
to call называть
to crush дробить, толочь
to extract extraction извлекать; извлечение
to fall (fell, fallen) падать
to float flotation плавать; плавучесть
to keep сохранять, держать
to obtain получать
to pour to pour away лить, наливать; сливать
to prepare preparation готовить, подготавливать; подготовка
to refine очищать
to relate relationship относиться, иметь отношение; отношение
to sink тонуть
to smelt расплавлять, плавить
to suspend приводить во взвешенное состояние; взвешивать (в жидкости)
to turn on to turn off включать; выключать
to wash to wash away мыть; смывать
wrought кованый

I. Вспомните, как переводятся следующие слова:

water; air; class; body; ship; food; bed; car; railway; wall.

II. Вспомните названия химических элементов:

C carbon; Cr chromium; Cu copper; Pb lead; Mn manganese; Mo molybdenum; Ni nickel; Ooxygen; Sisilicon; Wtungsten; Vvanadium.

III. Прочитайте и переведите слова, не пользуясь словарем. Обратите внимание на их произношение:

agent; apartment; architect; automobile; balance; capsule; concentration; constant; corrosive; criteria; decorative; diagnose; economic; electromagnet; electrostatic; extra; flux; geometry; gradual; intervention; machinery; macroscopic; magnetic; magnetite; magnetosphere; metallic; metallography; metallurgical; metallurgy; methodology; mineral; parameter; percent; percentage; periodically; petroleum; slag; strategy; substance; tank; tonnage; transformation; to construct; to fabricate; to group; to guarantees;

IV. Прочитайте, переведите и попытайтесь запомнить следующие слова:

· существительные

attraction; axle; beam; blast; bottom; building; chamber; charge; compound; deposits; extraction; flotation; furnaces; blast furnace; gangue; gravity; specific gravity; iron; open-hearth iron; wrought iron; cast iron; malleable cast iron; pig iron; knife (knives); moisture; oil; ore; preparation; refinery; relationship; repulsion; roller; rust; state; steel; high-strength low-alloy steel; stainless steel; tool steel; alloy steel; thing;

· прилагательные

bright; expensive; malleable; pure; thin; wrought;

· глаголы

to blow; to blow away; to call; to crush; to extract; to fall; to float; to keep; to obtain; to pour; to pour away; to prepare; to refine; to relate; to sink; to smelt; to suspend; to turn on; to turn off; to wash; to wash away;

· предлоги

in spite of.

V. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык:

a) the extraction of metals from ores; one of the simplest methods of mechanical separation; the bottom of the processing chamber; deposits of low concentration; the production of pig iron; the result of programmer error; limitation of self-generated vibrations; a better understanding of the relationship between processing, structure, and properties of the materials;

b) rock material; the most important present-day method; surface-active agents; chemical separation methods; lift mechanisms; the standard inaccuracy; CNC thread cutting machines;

c) the machine’s vibration; computer’s main memory; Yuri Gagarin's flight; humanity's knowledge.

Повторение

VI. Прочитайте предложения, найдите в них сказуемые, определите время и залог:

1.There are a number of factors which influence abrasive wear. 2. Multiple-cutting-edge tools have more than one cutting edge and usually move round the workpiece. 3. Before long, the machines could automatically change the specific cutting tools that were being used. 4. The researchers will have widely studied the machine’s vibration before they put it in mass production. 5. Of all the changes that occurred in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, the most significant transformation was the so called "scientific revolution." 6. The lift mechanisms being controlled by CNC are rotating slowly in the xy plane. 7. Some difficulties have been met in the classification of the technological parameters. 8. In the 1990s the spread of applications like e-mail and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of networking technology like Internet made computer networking almost universal. 9. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with structures of HSLA steels. 10. The use of high speed machining (HSM) had increased productivity by the 2000s.

VII. Определите, к какой группе времен относится инфинитив в скобках. Поставьте инфинитив в настоящее время, прочитайте предложения и переведите:

1. In general, operational memory (to be removed) when the power to the computer (to be turned off), but constant memory (to maintain) its data indefinitely. 2. Cutting fluids (to be used) for cooling and lubricating and (to be becoming) more and more popular. 3. These machine centres (to have changed) dramatically the way parts (to be made). 4. Since computers (to perform) the instructions they (to be given), bugs (to be) nearly always the result of programmer error. 5. The cutting tool (to be moving) slowly in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation of the workpiece. 6. Specific strategies (to have been developed), especially for limitation of self-generated vibrations. 7. Computer’s main memory (to come) in two principal types: operational memory or RAM and constant memory or ROM. 8. Each spindle (to contain) a piece of material that (to be being machined) at the same time. 9. HSLA (to have been processed) specially to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight.

VIII. Поставьте предложения из упражнения VII сначала в прошедшее время, а затем в будущее. Обратите внимание на то, что одно из этих девяти предложений поставить автоматически в будущее время нельзя.

IX. Прочитайте предложения, найдите сказуемое, определите залог. Задайте к каждому предложению общий вопрос и дайте отрицательный ответ:

1. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional, unconventional and presses. 2. In general, the shaper can produce almost any surface composed of simple elements. 3. The spindle can be oriented either vertically or horizontally, or anywhere in between. 4. The accuracy becomes worse as the grinding wheel wears, so it must be replaced periodically. 5. Many operations can be performed by ECM. 6. With special attachments, a lathe may also be used to produce flat surfaces or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece.

X. Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Поставьте их сначала в прошедшее время, а затем в будущее:

1. Cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear resistance at high temperatures. 2. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics. 3. The tool must be specially designed for the geometry of the device. 4. EDM can produce shapes unobtainable by any conventional machining process. 5. The grinding wheel must be moved to a correct position relative to the workpiece. 6. Materials such as hardened steel, carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM.

XI. Прочитайте предложения, найдите в них сказуемое, определите его время и залог. Замените залог на противоположный:

1. Natural science disciplines study natural phenomena. 2. Around 1885 similar investigations were previously performed by Prof. Martens at the Institute of Technology. 3. New machine tools will form the basis of modern industry in the 21st century. 4. The nature of wear has delayed its investigations. 5. As starting point Prof. Stribeck investigated the basic properties of roller bearings. 6. The first partially reusable orbital spacecraft, the Space Shuttle, was launched by the USA on the 20th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight, on April 12, 1981.

XII. Сделайте грамматический разбор предложений. Определите время и залог сказуемых:

1. Under normal operating parameters, the property changes during exploitationnormally occur in three different stages: primary, secondary, tertiary.

2. EDM typically works with materials that are electrically conductive, although methods for machining ceramics with EDM have also been proposed.

 

The Infinitive

Инфинитив и его функции в предложении

 

Инфинитив -это основная форма глагола. Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to. Каждой группе времен в английском языке соответствует своя форма инфинитива.

Таблица форм инфинитива

  Indefinite Tenses Continuous Tenses Perfect Tenses
Active voice to design to be designing to have designed
Passive voice to be designed --- to have been designed

 

Инфинитив имеет признаки, как существительного, так и глагола. Свойством инфинитива как глагола является его способность выражать характер действия (его длительность или завершенность) и залог.

Свойством инфинитива как существительного является его способность выполнять в предложении все те синтаксические функции, какие выполняет существительное, то есть инфинитив может быть: подлежащим, дополнением, обстоятельством, определением, именной частью составного именного сказуемого.

 

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-08-11

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