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Is there a uniform classification of personality types?




UNIT 8

Personality Types

Grammar

Modal Verbs

В отличие от большинства глаголов, обозначающих действие или состояние субъекта (объекта), модальные глаголы обозначают отношение субъекта к тому или иному действию. Традиционно выделяют 10 модальных глаголов: can, may, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to, need, dare. В английском языке они считаются «неполными, дефективными» глаголами, т.к.

- не передают никаких других грамматических форм времени, кроме Simple. Все модальные глаголы не имеют формы будущего времени, а глагол must - и формы прошедшего времени;

- не образуют форму Passive Voice;

- в инфинитивной форме употребляются без частицы «to», и следующие за ними глаголы в форме инфинитива также употребляются без «to»;

- в форме 3 лица ед.ч. не имеют окончания -(e)s.

- в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях с модальными глаголами вспомогательные глаголы не используются. Отрицательная частица not присоединяется непосредственно к глаголу. Сокращённые формы – can’t, couldn’t, mayn’t, mustn’t, shan’t, shouldn’t, won’t, wouldn’t, oughtn’t, needn’t.

Краткие отрицательные формы модальных глаголов (а также вспомогательных) теперь используются не только в устной, но и в письменной речи, и их употребление официально разрешено в письменных работах учащихся британских школ.

Заменители модальных глаголов.Для передачи недостающих форм будущего времени глаголов can и may (а для must – и формы прошедшего времени) используются заменители. В некоторых грамматических справочниках они называются эквивалентами или синонимами, но эти термины не вполне точны. Глаголы-заменители отражают смысл модальных глаголов только в самом общем смысле, но при этом имеют свои «оттенки» значения и не могут являться полными синонимами или эквивалентами.

Can = to be able to May = to be allowed to Must = to have to to be to

 

Необходимо помнить, что глаголы-заменители не являются модальными, т.е. изменяются по временам, лицам и числам. А вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются по правилам, действующим для глаголов «to be» и «to have»:

The students were allowed to watch the operation.

Were the students allowed to watch the operation?

They had to wear the white gowns.

Did they have to wear the white gowns?

Рассмотрим грамматические формы и варианты значений наиболее часто употребляемых модальных глаголов.

CAN / COULD

Present Past Future
can could ---
am/is/are able to was/were able to will be able to

 

Значение Примеры
Физическая, умственная, объективная возможность совершения действия (mental, physical and circumstantial ability) I can’t walk much as my leg aches. They can cope with the most difficult situations. Eating fish and raw vegetables can help you to keep slim.  
Вероятность совершения действия (probability) There could be another rise in grippe incidence next month. I’m free today. We could meet somewhere.
Просьба (request) We could discuss it later, couldn’t we? Can I have my chest X-ray made immediately?
Разрешение (permission) You can apply this cream for 5 minutes daily. You can borrow the books for a month.
Запрет (prohibition) You cannot practice medicine without being licensed
Сомнение, удивление, отсутствие возможности или вероятности совершения действия (Doubt, astonishment, lack of probability) She can’t have made so many mistakes. She is a brilliant student. She couldn’t have so many mistakes. She consulted her tutor.
Нереализованные возможности (lost opportunity) You could tell me you are not going to attend this course. Eating fish and raw vegetables could prevent you from gaining 20 extra pounds. (Для сравнения см. 1 значение)

 



Task 1. Extend the statements expressing the possibility of fulfilling the action in the future. Use the given suggestions:

I can’t do it now. (tomorrow) I’ll be ableto do it tomorrow.

1. He can’t speak to you now. (in an hour)

2. Tom can’t leave the hospital now. (in a fortnight)

3. They can’t speak English very well now. (after a year or two)

4. The girl cannot adapt to the changes in her lifestyle because of a kidney transplant right now. (in a few months’ time)

5. The car crash victim can’t return to work and her daily activities now. (after a few weeks)

6. I am in some form of debt now and can’t pay it back. (next month)

7. He can’t earn a lot of money now. (in the future)

8. I can’t overcome my depression and low moods now. (soon)

9. The woman can’t pay for the treatment now. (next week)

10. The physician can’t decide which treatment plan to choose right now. (one of these days)

11. I can’t find a social work job at present. (soon)

12. The woman can’t get in touch with the social worker. (in an hour)

Task 2. Change the following sentences (a) into the future, (b) into the past, using the given time expressions:

I can meet you. a) on Sunday b) because I had time I will be able to meetyou on Sunday. I could meet you because I had time.

1) We cannot understand it. (a) until you explain it

(b) because he spoke too fast

2) I can’t find it. (a) until tomorrow

(b) when we looked for it

3) My sister can’t help me. (a) until she comes home

(b) as she had no time

4) The social worker can’t

help my child. (a) until I speak to her about the problem

(b) because she hadn’t done the initial assessment

of my child yet.

5) I can’t find your website. (a) until you show me the website address

(b) because I didn’t know the address

6) She can’t convey the

information verbally. (a) when she knows how to do this

(b) because she was frustrated

7) He can control his

emotions. (a) when he gets quite

(b) because he was calm

8) The social worker can

provide an appropriate

support and counseling

to my family. (a) ask the social worker for assistance

(b) because she had been involved into looking

after my family

9) She can talk to her friend on

the phone. (a) tomorrow

(b) when she arrived home from work

10) She can work on a team. (a) if she feels quite comfortable

(b) because she felt quite comfortable with the team

 

Task 3. Analyze the following sentences. Explain the meaning of “can/could”:

1. The children who require foster care can be any age, from infancy through to those in their mid teens. 2. Mental disorders, learning difficulties, terminal illness and chronic disease can also qualify a person as being disabled. 3. When I was younger, I could run 3 miles without any sign of breathlessness. 4. Can you speak up a bit? I can’t understand a word. 5. For example, a woman pregnant who cannot provide a high quality of life for her child may consider adoption as an option. 6. You can smoke if you like. I don’t mind. 7. When you are expected to do something or be somewhere, can others count on you? 8. Individuals can suffer from different disabilities that affect the body in different ways. 9. They can’t be still waiting. An hour has passed already. 10. There are many different aspects to focus on when considering the social environment. This could be littering, community activities and graffiti concerns. 11. Somebody is coming up to the ward. It could be a doctor. 12. There are a number of good, upstanding citizens within the UK that can provide a loving, caring home to children who cannot stay in their own home.

 

Task 4. Answer the questions with a suggestion. Use “could”:

1. Will you go anywhere for your holidays or will you stay home? 2. How will you prepare for your classes? 3. What will your mother cook for dinner? 4. What will you do to keep fit? 5. Where will you spend your weekend? 6. What will you do to improve your students’ excellence rating? 7. What can you do to stay healthy? 8. What will you do tonight? 9. How many sweets will you take a day? 10. How much money will you spend on books? 11. Where will you go if you feel 12.

 

 

NOTE!

Между can и be able to существует разница в значении. Can обозначает способность выполнить действие вообще, вне зависимости от ситуации. Но если мы имеем в виду способность выполнить действие, справиться с конкретной ситуацией, необходимо использовать be able to. Сравните:

- They could place the child in foster care any time but they were able to do it when the guardian became unable to continue caring for the child.

- He was upset because of his car crash and wasn’t able to concentrate on the point.

MAY / MIGHT

Present Past Future
may might ---
am/is/are allowed to was/were allowed to will be allowed to

 

Значение Примеры
Разрешение (ask / give permission) - May I be late for the classes tomorrow? I have to go to the dean’s office. – Yes, you may. We were allowed to go home when our duty was off.
Вероятность совершения действия (probability) Vegetable diet may help you to slim down. (Средняя-высокая степень уверенности) Vegetable diet might help you to slim down. (Средняя – низкая степень уверенности)
Объективная возможность совершения действия (possibility) You may see him any day you like. He is always here. I may go home now that the classes are over.
Выражение неуверенности, сомнения (uncertainty) = сould в этом же значении She may not say that in any case. She might not be a good mother as she is a bad daughter
Упрёк, сожаление (reproach, regret). Используется только might и Perfect Infinitive You might have reminded me about this procedure. It’s your duty as a nurse. They might have predicted the consequences.

 

Task 5. Express the same idea replacing the words possibly, perhaps by may be. Follow the pattern. Mind the order of words:

Perhaps (possibly)Mr. Jones is right. Mr. Jonesmay beright.

1) Possibly the information is wrong.

2) Perhaps, he is at home.

3) Possibly the appointment will be postponed.

4) Perhaps he is in the library.

5) Perhaps our group is in room 5.

6) Possibly Dr. Brown is in his office.

7) Perhaps this doctor’s working hours are over.

8) Possibly the calculations are wrong.

9) Perhaps the findings are controversial.

10) Possibly this social worker is engaged in family counseling.

11) Perhaps this student is interested in social studies.

12) Possibly the social environment here is quite favourable.

13) Perhaps this is a silly idea.

Task 6. Change the following sentences into the future according to the pattern:

a) May I go home early today? Will you allow me to go home early today? b) May she not pay you the money today? Will you allow her not to pay (you) the money today?

1) May he miss his classes tomorrow?

2) May I have a week’s holiday?

3) May the students look up the words in the dictionary now?

4) May I borrow your car tomorrow?

5) May I have a look at your notes?

6) May I not go for a check-up today?

7) May he not answer the question at once?

8) May she not do the job now?

9) May she postpone her visit to the doctor?

10) May we arrange another time for writing the test?

11) May I join the group therapy a bit later?

12) May he go home after finishing the work?

13) May I pay you back the debt next month?

Task 7. Analyze the following sentences. Explain the meaning of “may/might”:

1. The social worker can help you understand your feelings and adapt to changes in your lifestyle that might be necessary because of a transplant. 2. Doctor says I may not go out for 3 more days. 3. He might have gone to the party. 4. Social workers may intervene by providing individual, couple, or family counseling, offering group education or support. 5. A certified independent social worker may evaluate and intervene in complex difficulties in psychosocial functioning. 6. Your group mates might have realized their mistakes. But it’s too late now. 7. May we stay here for another week? 8. Students may not miss lectures. 8. Do you like to help people-to really make a difference in their daily lives? Then social work might be the field for you. 9. I may call you later. 10. Social workers might work with people who are homeless, sick, or having family problems. Or they might help students who are having trouble in school. 11. May we come a bit later?

 

NOTE!

1.При обращении с просьбой к человеку с более высоким социальным статусом предпочтительно употреблять might. Это звучит более официально и вежливо. Сравните:

- May I use your telephone?

- Might I borrow your telephone?

2. Употребление canвместо may для выражения просьбы встречается всё чаще и уже перешло из разговорного стиля в нейтральный, особенно вAmerican English (AE). Вопрос May I? означает, что спрашивающий зависит от воли собеседника. Вопрос Can I? предполагает, что спрашивающий считает свою просьбу вполне законной и она вполне может быть удовлетворена. Так, например, вопрос, обращенный медсестре - Can I come in and speak to Dr. Brown?означает, что вы точно знаете, что врач на месте и может вас принять, но спрашиваете разрешения на тот случай, если у врача другой посетитель. В данном случае вам важно не разрешение самой медсестры, а наличие разрешающих обстоятельств.

Reading and Speech Practice

Task 8. Find information on different personality types and answer the following questions:

G) brothers and sisters.

Prompts: personal belongings; a room; values; beliefs; ideas; personality traits; workplace; a bathroom; dinner; profits; a cake; a house; a textbook; housework; a secret; news; a desk/table; handouts; responsibility; money; toys; views; enthusiasm; information.

Task 17. Describe the modal personalities below using the pattern:

… personality places/does not place a strong emphasis on …

Use the following prompts: societal norms, conscience, seeking new experiences, ambiguous feelings about right and wrong, doing things the same way, feeling of guilt.

The tradition-oriented personality …

The inner-oriented personality…

The other-directed personality…

UNIT 8

Personality Types

Grammar

Modal Verbs

В отличие от большинства глаголов, обозначающих действие или состояние субъекта (объекта), модальные глаголы обозначают отношение субъекта к тому или иному действию. Традиционно выделяют 10 модальных глаголов: can, may, must, shall, should, will, would, ought to, need, dare. В английском языке они считаются «неполными, дефективными» глаголами, т.к.

- не передают никаких других грамматических форм времени, кроме Simple. Все модальные глаголы не имеют формы будущего времени, а глагол must - и формы прошедшего времени;

- не образуют форму Passive Voice;

- в инфинитивной форме употребляются без частицы «to», и следующие за ними глаголы в форме инфинитива также употребляются без «to»;

- в форме 3 лица ед.ч. не имеют окончания -(e)s.

- в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях с модальными глаголами вспомогательные глаголы не используются. Отрицательная частица not присоединяется непосредственно к глаголу. Сокращённые формы – can’t, couldn’t, mayn’t, mustn’t, shan’t, shouldn’t, won’t, wouldn’t, oughtn’t, needn’t.

Краткие отрицательные формы модальных глаголов (а также вспомогательных) теперь используются не только в устной, но и в письменной речи, и их употребление официально разрешено в письменных работах учащихся британских школ.

Заменители модальных глаголов.Для передачи недостающих форм будущего времени глаголов can и may (а для must – и формы прошедшего времени) используются заменители. В некоторых грамматических справочниках они называются эквивалентами или синонимами, но эти термины не вполне точны. Глаголы-заменители отражают смысл модальных глаголов только в самом общем смысле, но при этом имеют свои «оттенки» значения и не могут являться полными синонимами или эквивалентами.

Can = to be able to May = to be allowed to Must = to have to to be to

 

Необходимо помнить, что глаголы-заменители не являются модальными, т.е. изменяются по временам, лицам и числам. А вопросительная и отрицательная формы образуются по правилам, действующим для глаголов «to be» и «to have»:

The students were allowed to watch the operation.

Were the students allowed to watch the operation?

They had to wear the white gowns.

Did they have to wear the white gowns?

Рассмотрим грамматические формы и варианты значений наиболее часто употребляемых модальных глаголов.

CAN / COULD

Present Past Future
can could ---
am/is/are able to was/were able to will be able to

 

Значение Примеры
Физическая, умственная, объективная возможность совершения действия (mental, physical and circumstantial ability) I can’t walk much as my leg aches. They can cope with the most difficult situations. Eating fish and raw vegetables can help you to keep slim.  
Вероятность совершения действия (probability) There could be another rise in grippe incidence next month. I’m free today. We could meet somewhere.
Просьба (request) We could discuss it later, couldn’t we? Can I have my chest X-ray made immediately?
Разрешение (permission) You can apply this cream for 5 minutes daily. You can borrow the books for a month.
Запрет (prohibition) You cannot practice medicine without being licensed
Сомнение, удивление, отсутствие возможности или вероятности совершения действия (Doubt, astonishment, lack of probability) She can’t have made so many mistakes. She is a brilliant student. She couldn’t have so many mistakes. She consulted her tutor.
Нереализованные возможности (lost opportunity) You could tell me you are not going to attend this course. Eating fish and raw vegetables could prevent you from gaining 20 extra pounds. (Для сравнения см. 1 значение)

 

Task 1. Extend the statements expressing the possibility of fulfilling the action in the future. Use the given suggestions:

I can’t do it now. (tomorrow) I’ll be ableto do it tomorrow.

1. He can’t speak to you now. (in an hour)

2. Tom can’t leave the hospital now. (in a fortnight)

3. They can’t speak English very well now. (after a year or two)

4. The girl cannot adapt to the changes in her lifestyle because of a kidney transplant right now. (in a few months’ time)

5. The car crash victim can’t return to work and her daily activities now. (after a few weeks)

6. I am in some form of debt now and can’t pay it back. (next month)

7. He can’t earn a lot of money now. (in the future)

8. I can’t overcome my depression and low moods now. (soon)

9. The woman can’t pay for the treatment now. (next week)

10. The physician can’t decide which treatment plan to choose right now. (one of these days)

11. I can’t find a social work job at present. (soon)

12. The woman can’t get in touch with the social worker. (in an hour)

Task 2. Change the following sentences (a) into the future, (b) into the past, using the given time expressions:

I can meet you. a) on Sunday b) because I had time I will be able to meetyou on Sunday. I could meet you because I had time.

1) We cannot understand it. (a) until you explain it

(b) because he spoke too fast

2) I can’t find it. (a) until tomorrow

(b) when we looked for it

3) My sister can’t help me. (a) until she comes home

(b) as she had no time

4) The social worker can’t

help my child. (a) until I speak to her about the problem

(b) because she hadn’t done the initial assessment

of my child yet.

5) I can’t find your website. (a) until you show me the website address

(b) because I didn’t know the address

6) She can’t convey the

information verbally. (a) when she knows how to do this

(b) because she was frustrated

7) He can control his

emotions. (a) when he gets quite

(b) because he was calm

8) The social worker can

provide an appropriate

support and counseling

to my family. (a) ask the social worker for assistance

(b) because she had been involved into looking

after my family

9) She can talk to her friend on

the phone. (a) tomorrow

(b) when she arrived home from work

10) She can work on a team. (a) if she feels quite comfortable

(b) because she felt quite comfortable with the team

 

Task 3. Analyze the following sentences. Explain the meaning of “can/could”:

1. The children who require foster care can be any age, from infancy through to those in their mid teens. 2. Mental disorders, learning difficulties, terminal illness and chronic disease can also qualify a person as being disabled. 3. When I was younger, I could run 3 miles without any sign of breathlessness. 4. Can you speak up a bit? I can’t understand a word. 5. For example, a woman pregnant who cannot provide a high quality of life for her child may consider adoption as an option. 6. You can smoke if you like. I don’t mind. 7. When you are expected to do something or be somewhere, can others count on you? 8. Individuals can suffer from different disabilities that affect the body in different ways. 9. They can’t be still waiting. An hour has passed already. 10. There are many different aspects to focus on when considering the social environment. This could be littering, community activities and graffiti concerns. 11. Somebody is coming up to the ward. It could be a doctor. 12. There are a number of good, upstanding citizens within the UK that can provide a loving, caring home to children who cannot stay in their own home.

 

Task 4. Answer the questions with a suggestion. Use “could”:

1. Will you go anywhere for your holidays or will you stay home? 2. How will you prepare for your classes? 3. What will your mother cook for dinner? 4. What will you do to keep fit? 5. Where will you spend your weekend? 6. What will you do to improve your students’ excellence rating? 7. What can you do to stay healthy? 8. What will you do tonight? 9. How many sweets will you take a day? 10. How much money will you spend on books? 11. Where will you go if you feel 12.

 

 

NOTE!

Между can и be able to существует разница в значении. Can обозначает способность выполнить действие вообще, вне зависимости от ситуации. Но если мы имеем в виду способность выполнить действие, справиться с конкретной ситуацией, необходимо использовать be able to. Сравните:

- They could place the child in foster care any time but they were able to do it when the guardian became unable to continue caring for the child.

- He was upset because of his car crash and wasn’t able to concentrate on the point.

MAY / MIGHT

Present Past Future
may might ---
am/is/are allowed to was/were allowed to will be allowed to

 

Значение Примеры
Разрешение (ask / give permission) - May I be late for the classes tomorrow? I have to go to the dean’s office. – Yes, you may. We were allowed to go home when our duty was off.
Вероятность совершения действия (probability) Vegetable diet may help you to slim down. (Средняя-высокая степень уверенности) Vegetable diet might help you to slim down. (Средняя – низкая степень уверенности)
Объективная возможность совершения действия (possibility) You may see him any day you like. He is always here. I may go home now that the classes are over.
Выражение неуверенности, сомнения (uncertainty) = сould в этом же значении She may not say that in any case. She might not be a good mother as she is a bad daughter
Упрёк, сожаление (reproach, regret). Используется только might и Perfect Infinitive You might have reminded me about this procedure. It’s your duty as a nurse. They might have predicted the consequences.

 

Task 5. Express the same idea replacing the words possibly, perhaps by may be. Follow the pattern. Mind the order of words:

Perhaps (possibly)Mr. Jones is right. Mr. Jonesmay beright.

1) Possibly the information is wrong.

2) Perhaps, he is at home.

3) Possibly the appointment will be postponed.

4) Perhaps he is in the library.

5) Perhaps our group is in room 5.

6) Possibly Dr. Brown is in his office.

7) Perhaps this doctor’s working hours are over.

8) Possibly the calculations are wrong.

9) Perhaps the findings are controversial.

10) Possibly this social worker is engaged in family counseling.

11) Perhaps this student is interested in social studies.

12) Possibly the social environment here is quite favourable.

13) Perhaps this is a silly idea.

Task 6. Change the following sentences into the future according to the pattern:

a) May I go home early today? Will you allow me to go home early today? b) May she not pay you the money today? Will you allow her not to pay (you) the money today?

1) May he miss his classes tomorrow?

2) May I have a week’s holiday?

3) May the students look up the words in the dictionary now?

4) May I borrow your car tomorrow?

5) May I have a look at your notes?

6) May I not go for a check-up today?

7) May he not answer the question at once?

8) May she not do the job now?

9) May she postpone her visit to the doctor?

10) May we arrange another time for writing the test?

11) May I join the group therapy a bit later?

12) May he go home after finishing the work?

13) May I pay you back the debt next month?

Task 7. Analyze the following sentences. Explain the meaning of “may/might”:

1. The social worker can help you understand your feelings and adapt to changes in your lifestyle that might be necessary because of a transplant. 2. Doctor says I may not go out for 3 more days. 3. He might have gone to the party. 4. Social workers may intervene by providing individual, couple, or family counseling, offering group education or support. 5. A certified independent social worker may evaluate and intervene in complex difficulties in psychosocial functioning. 6. Your group mates might have realized their mistakes. But it’s too late now. 7. May we stay here for another week? 8. Students may not miss lectures. 8. Do you like to help people-to really make a difference in their daily lives? Then social work might be the field for you. 9. I may call you later. 10. Social workers might work with people who are homeless, sick, or having family problems. Or they might help students who are having trouble in school. 11. May we come a bit later?

 

NOTE!

1.При обращении с просьбой к человеку с более высоким социальным статусом предпочтительно употреблять might. Это звучит более официально и вежливо. Сравните:

- May I use your telephone?

- Might I borrow your telephone?

2. Употребление canвместо may для выражения просьбы встречается всё чаще и уже перешло из разговорного стиля в нейтральный, особенно вAmerican English (AE). Вопрос May I? означает, что спрашивающий зависит от воли собеседника. Вопрос Can I? предполагает, что спрашивающий считает свою просьбу вполне законной и она вполне может быть удовлетворена. Так, например, вопрос, обращенный медсестре - Can I come in and speak to Dr. Brown?означает, что вы точно знаете, что врач на месте и может вас принять, но спрашиваете разрешения на тот случай, если у врача другой посетитель. В данном случае вам важно не разрешение самой медсестры, а наличие разрешающих обстоятельств.

Reading and Speech Practice

Task 8. Find information on different personality types and answer the following questions:

Is there a uniform classification of personality types?

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