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МОДУЛЬ 4 Грамматика


to be + V3


Tense/ Время Aspect/ характеристика действия (вид)
    Indefinite (Simple) Неопределенное Continuous (Progressive) Длительное Perfect Совершенное
Present Настоящее Не is asked. Его спрашивают (обычно, вообще) Не is being asked. Его спрашивают (сейчас) Не has been asked. Его спросили (уже, только что)
Past Прошедшее Не was asked. Его спросили (вчера) Не was being asked. Его спрашивали (в определенный момент) Не had been asked. Его спросили (уже к тому моменту)
Future Будущее Не will be asked. Его спросят (завтра) --- Не will have been asked. Его спросят (уже к тому моменту)



  Indefinite (Simple)
Present I - am asked He/she/it - is asked We/they/you – are asked
Past I/he/she/it – was asked We/they/you – were asked
Future I/we/you/she/he/it/they – will be asked  


Present I - am being asked He/she/it - is being asked We/they/you – are being asked
Past I/he/she/it – was being asked We/they/you – were being asked
Future ---



Present I/we/they/you – have been asked He/she/it – has been asked
Past I/we/you/he/she/it/they – had been asked
Future I/we/you/he/she/it/they – will have been asked



Тестовые упражнения

1. Подберите по смыслу и вставьте глаголы, употребляя их в форме инфинитива в пассивном залоге:

arrest check translate find drive make hear carry

Образец:The music at the party was very loud and could …be heard… from far away.

1. A decision will not…be made…until the next meeting.

2. When you go through Customs, your luggage may…be checked…by a customs officer.

3. Her new book will probably…be translated…into a number of foreign languages.

4. If you kicked a policeman, you’d…be arrested.

5. Police are looking for the missing boy. He can’t…be found…anywhere.

6. The injured man couldn’t walk and had to…be carried.

7. I don’t mind driving but I prefer to…be driven…by other people


2. Составьте новые предложения в пассивном залоге, сохраняя смысл предыдущих:

Образец: The bill includes service. Service …is included… in the bill.


1. People don’t use this road very often.

This road is not used very often.

2. They cancelled all flights because of fog.

All flights were cancelled because of fog.

3. Somebody accused me of stealing the money.

I was accused of stealing the money.

4. They are building a new ring-road round the city.

A new ring-road is being built round the city.

5. I didn’t realise that someone was recording our conversation.

I didn’t realise that our conversation was being recorded.

6. They have changed the date of the meeting.

The date of the meeting has been changed.

7. Brian told me that somebody had attacked and robbed him in the street.

Brian told me that he had been attacked and robbed in the street.

8. They don’t pay Jim very much.

Jim is not paid very much.

9. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview.

You will be asked a lot of questions at the interview.

10. Nobody told me that George was ill.

I was not told that George was ill.

11. His colleagues gave him a present when he retired.

He was given a present when he retired.

12. We will send you your examination results as soon as they are ready.

You will be sent your examination results as soon as they are ready.

13. They didn’t ask me my name.

I was not asked my name.

14. I think they should have offered Tom the job.

I think Tom should have been offered the job.

3. Составьте предложения в пассивном залоге, используя слова данные в скобках:

Образец: That church looks very old. (when/it/build?) …When was it built?

1. This is a very popular television programme. (every week it/watch/by millions of people) Every week it is watched by millions of people.

2. What happens to the cars produced in this factory? (most of them/export?)

Are most of them exported?

3. A: Was there any trouble at the demonstration?

B: Yes. (about 20 people/arrest) About 20 people were arrested.

4. A: There is no longer military service in Britain.

B: Really? (when/it/abolish?) When was it abolished?

5. The people next door disappeared six months ago. (they / not / see / since then)

They have not been seen since then.

6. This room looks different, (it / paint / since I was last here?)

Has it been painted since I was last here?

7. A tree was lying across the road, (it / blow / down in the storm)

It had been blown down in the storm.

4. Заполните пропуски глаголами, данными в скобках, употребляя их в правильной временной форме в пассивном залоге:

Образец: The room looks nice. It…has been cleaned…(clean)

1. A: Were there any losses in the storm?

B: The house …was damaged… (damage) and a tree …was blown… (blow) down.

2. I …am not invited… (not/invite) to parties quite often.

3. When …was that castle built… (that castle/build)?

4. This problem can …be solved… (solve).

5. Go away! I want to …be left… (leave) alone.

6. My bicycle has disappeared. It must …had been stolen….(steal).

7. You are going to …be paid… (pay) £700 for this job.


5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях правильными формами вспомогательных глаголов to be и to have:

Образец:A house in Brazil which ...is...made of plastic bottles has won a prize.

1. Pizza-scented bathroom products …have… been created by an Italian cosmetics manufacturer.

2. Stars of the new extreme sport ,,free running,, will …be…shown on TV jumping between buildings and across rooftops.

3. A dog …has… been offered a gold credit card with a $10,000 limit.

4. A Mexican man who …is… shot in the back and neck says his dog did it.

5. French bus drivers who …are… banned from wearing shorts and sunglasses in summer are going on strike.

6. Five tourists were rescued by helicopter after they …have…been chased round a field by a bull for three hours.

7. An eight foot long dragon lizard who has a nerve disorder …is….being treated with Chinese acupuncture.


6. Выберите правильную альтернативу, Active или Passive voice:

a) The reason why Swift trainers (0.cost/are cost)... cost... so much is that they (1.make/are made) …are made...of the highest quality leather. We (2.export/are exported) …export… over 10 million trainers to countries all round the world and our shoes (3.wear/are worn) …are worn... by all types of people.

b) The songs on Didi Brown's new album (4.wrote/were written) …were written… by Didi herself. Half the money from the sales (5.will give/will be given)…will be given… to the ,,Children In Need ,,fund.

c) The new Primera Consul has more comfortable seats and a sunroof . This model also (6.comes/is come) … comes…with all the latest safety features, which (7.check/are checked) …are checked…very carefully by technicians.



Модальные глаголы, их формы и эквиваленты Значения Перевод    
Can (could) – to be able to 1. возможность, умение, способность (can/could/to be able to); 2. сомнение, удивление, недоверие, невероятность (в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях) (can/could); 3. вежливые просьбы (can/could) 1. мочь, быть в состоянии;     2. не может быть, вряд ли, неужели;   3. можно мне ∕могу ли я…? Не могли бы Вы…?(can/could)    
May (might) – to be allowed to 1. разрешение(may/to be allowed to); 2. предположение с оттенком сомнения, допускаемая возможность(may/might + Indefinite/Continuous/Perfect Infinitive); 3. упрек (might + Perfect Infinitive)   1.можно;   2. возможно, может быть;   3. можно было бы    
Must – to have to, to be to 1. обязанность, необходимость (must/to have to – по обстоятельствам/to be to – по договоренности, по плану); приказание, настойчивое приглашение(must); 2. предположение (почти уверенность) (must+ Indefinite/Continuous/Perfect Infinitive) . 1.должен, вынужден, приходится, надо;     2. должно быть, очевидно, вероятно, наверно


Should (ought to – синоним) 1. личный совет, рекомендация; упрек, порицание(should/shouldn’t + Indefinite/Perfect Infinitive) 1. следует, следовало (бы), нужно было бы  


Тренировочные упражнения

1. Заполните пропуски глаголами may или can:

1. Can you see anything in the darkness?

2. You may go when you have finished your composition.

3. When can you come and see me? - Let me see: I cancome tomorrow.

4. Most children can slide on the ice very well.

5. Be careful: you can spill the milk if you carry it like that.

6. May I borrow your car, please?

7. What shall we do if the train is late? It may be late, you know, after the terrible snowstorms we've had.

2. Вставьте модальные глаголы may(might) или can(could):

1. Can you help me?

2. I could not imagine her speaking in public: I knew that she was so shy.

3. A fool can ask more questions than a wise man can answer.

4. The school was silent: nothing could be heard in the long dark corridors.

5. They might think that I am too weak to take part in the excursion, but I am strong enough to do any kind of hard work, indeed.

6. You can read this book: you know the language very well.

7. She asked me if she might use my phone.

3. Перепишите следующие предложения в прошедшем и будущем временах:

Образец: He must work systematically if he wants to know French well.

He had to work systematically if he wanted to know French well.

He will have to work systematically if he wants to know French well.

1. This child must spend more time out in the open air.

This child had to spend more time out in the open air.

This child will have to spend more time out in the open air.

2. I can't recite this poem.

I couldn’t recite this poem.

I’ll be able to recite this poem.

3. You must take part in this work.

You had to take part in this work.

You will have to take part in this work.

4. He can't join the party because he is busy.

He couldn't join the party because he was busy.

He won't be able to join the party because he will be busy.

5. You must take your examination in English.

You had to take your examination in English.

You will have to take your examination in English.

6. She can translate the article without a dictionary.

She could translate the article without a dictionary.

She will be able to translate the article without a dictionary.

7. The doctor must examine the child.

The doctor had to examine the child.

The doctor will have to examine the child.


4. Вставьте to have to или to be to в нужной форме:

1. The meeting is to begin at five o'clock. Don't be late.

2. Where is the lecture to take place? - I suppose in the assembly hall.

3. I am to help my friends with this work now, so I can't go with you.

4. I will have to ask him about it tomorrow, as today he has already gone.

5. Why didn't you tell me that I had to buy these books?

6. It was raining hard, so we had to wait until it stopped raining.

7. As we had agreed before, we were to meet at two o'clock to go to the stadium, but Mike didn't come.

5. Перепишите следующие предложения, употребляя модальный глагол must:

Образец:Probably I left my textbook at home.

I must have left my textbook at home.

1. Evidently she has left the town.

She must have left the town.

2. Probably Mike has gone to the teachers' room.

Mike must have gone to the teachers' room.

3. Probably Tom and Nick are playing football.

Tom and Nick must be playing football.

4. Evidently the meeting was cancelled.

The meeting must have been cancelled.

5. Obviously he forgot to warn them.

He must have forgotten to warn them.

6. It is probably a very difficult rule.

It must be a very difficult rule.

7. He is very old. I think he is nearly eighty.

I think he must be nearly eighty.



6. Прокомментируйте следующие действия, употребляя модальный глагол should(shouldn’t):

Образец: A boy was impolite to a girl and did not apologize.

You should have apologized to the girl.


What will you say to the person who:

1. crossed the street under the red light?

You shouldn’t have crossed the street under the red light.

2. doesn’t cross the street when the lights are green?

You should cross the street when the lights are green.

3. doesn’t take off his hat when entering a room?

You should take off your hat when entering a room.

4. was not present at the meeting?

You should have been present at the meeting.

5. reads till two o’clock in the morning?

You shouldn’t read till two o’clock in the morning.

6. didn’t help his classmate to clean the classroom?

You should have helped your classmate to clean the classroom.

7. hasn’t returned the books to the library?

You should have returned the books to the library.

7. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу модальные глаголы:



1. This group was reorganized a few weeks ago.

a. reorganized

b. was reorganized

c. has reorganized

d. has been reorganized

2. I hope the fish will be cooked soon.

a. will be cooked

b. was cooked

c. is cooked

d. will cook

3. Yesterday I was told to make a report.

a. told

b. has told

c. was telling

d. was told

4. A month ago I thought that this project had been fulfilled.

a. would have been fulfilled

b. will have been fulfilled

c. was fulfilled

d. had been fulfilled

5. This hotel has been built for a long time.

a. is building

b. has been built
с has built

d. is built

6. The speech was written by David yesterday.

a. is written

b. has been written

c. was written

d. will be written

7. The bills will be paid next Monday.

a. will pay

b. have been paid

c. will be paid

d. are being paid

8. I said I hoped the work would be finished in two hours.

a. will be finished

b. would be finished
с wag finished

d. would finish

9. The letter was written with a pen.

a. was written with

b. wrote in
с writes of

d. was written by

10. Her correspondence is read by her every day.

a. was read with

b. is read by
c. reads with

d. will be read of

11. This work will be done by me tomorrow.

a. will be done with

b. will do by

c. is done by

d. will be done by

12. Their house is made of wood.

a. makes of

b. will make in

c. is made of

d. is made in

13. Some sculptures are made in bronze.

a. are made in

b. are made with

c. make by

d. made with

14. The door opened and I was asked to come in.

a. asked

b. have asked

c. was asked
d. was asking

15 The car was washed by Ned yesterday.

a. was washed

b. was being washed

c. had been washed

d. had washed

16, The plans will be declared by our manager in two days.

a. are-declared

b. were declared

c. will be declared

d. have been declared

17. Trees have been planted already in the park.

a. are planted

b. were planted

с.have been planted
d. will be planted

18. Coal is mined in Newcastle.

a, is mined

b. was mined

c. has been mined

d. is mining

19. This play was written by Shakespeare.

a. has been written

b. was written

c. was being written

d. is writing

20. Our car was stolen a week ago.

a. was stolen

b. is stolen

с will be stolen

d. has been stolen



Тест №2

1. May I wait here?

a. May b. Have to с. Am to

2. It was so dark, we could see nothing.

a. may b. can c. could

3. The doctor says I may not go out.

a. might b. could c. may

4. Could I have some more bread?

a. Should b. Could c. Must

5. Can I do anything for you?

с Can

a. May b. Must

6. Nobody is allowed to park in front of the theatre.

a. must b. may c. is allowed

7. They can't know about it. They are too young.

a. needn't b. can't с must

8. Can you lend me a dictionary?

a. Should b. Must c. Can

9. Sorry, sir, you may not smoke here.

a. might, b. needn't с may

10. It's very late. Youshouldn't phone them now.

a. shouldn't b haven't to с can't

11. You ought to visit your parents.

a. should b. ought c. have to

12. Like any top sportsman she had to train very hard.

a.had b.must с should

13. The train isn't late. It is to come in time.

a. should b. ought c. is to

14. The policeman said: 'Noone is allowed to leave the room'

a. is allowed to b. has to с could

15 The water is cold, you haven't to swim.

a. haven't to b. must с can't

16.You have to cover the whole distance on foot.

a. can b. have c. must

17. Must I come to the university on Sunday? No, you mustn't.

a. mustn't b. can't с needn't

18. I'm afraid the weather may change for the worse

a. must b. may с should

19. You have to come here again.

a. have b. must c. should

20. You must work hard at your English if you want to know it.

a. must b. is to с may

МОДУЛЬ 5 Чтение






4) a)


6) c)

7) b)





4.2 Прочитайте текст и найдите ответы на вопросы.

1) When was Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class published?

Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class was published in 1899.

2) When did Knight write Risk, Uncertainty and Profit?

Knight wrote Risk, Uncertainty and Profit in 1921.

3) Who coined the term “conspicuous consumption”?

The term “conspicuous consumption” was coined by Veblen.

4) Should the government decide what would be offered for sale, in Knight’s view?

In Knight’s view the government should not decide what would be offered for sale.



Прочитайте текст и определите, относятся ли данные утверждения к Веблену (V), Найту (K), или к обоим (B).

1) Supported laissez faire economics. (K)

2) Taught Economics at the University of Chicago. (B)

3) Predicted the separation of ownership from management of business organizations. (V)

4) Coined the term “leisure class”. (V)

5) Believed business profits were earned in return for accepting the uncertainties of the market. (K)

6) Opposed laissez faire economics. (V)

7) Believed consumers made unwise choices. (V)

8) Supported the consumer’s right to determine what should be on the market. (K)

9) Believed that people in business could gain profits by giving consumers

what they wanted. (K)

10) Believed that people in business could gain profits by limiting production. (V)

11) His ideas are still influential today.(B)





5) b)



8) d)


5.2 Прочитайте текст и найдите ответы на вопросы.

1) What jobs did Keynes have in his adult life?

He served the British government as a financial adviser and treasury official through most of his adult life and was a key participant in the negotiations following both World Wars I and II.

2) What is the full title of Keynes’ General Theory?

It is General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.

3) In what way was the General Theory similar to The Wealth of Nations written by A.Smith?

The General Theory transformed economic thinking in the 20th century, much the way that The Wealth of Nations had in the 18th.

4) What role did Keynes think government should have in the economy?

Government should abandon laissez faire in favor of an active role in economic stabilization.










5.6 Дайте развернутые ответы на вопросы в письменной форме.

1) What is the “Keynesian Revolution”?

The suggestion that government abandon laissez faire in favor of an active role in economic stabilization was regarded as revolutionary in the 1930s. Since then, however, the ideas advanced by the “Keynesian Revolution” have become part of conventional wisdom.

2) Are Keynes’ ideas applicable to your country’s present economic situation?

Yes, they are. Whenever a nation appears to be entering into a period of recession or inflation, economists and others immediately think of steps the government might take to reverse the trend.





3) b)


5) a)

6) c)





6.2 Прочитайте текст и найдите ответы на вопросы.

1) What jobs did D.Ricardo do in his career?

He wrote works in economics and served in Parliament’s House of Commons.

2) What ideas made him especially famous in international economics?

Ricardo is especially famous in international economics for demonstrating the advantages of free trade.

3) What countries did he use in his explanation of comparative advantage?

In his explanation of comparative advantage he used England and Portugal.

4) When did England adopt a policy of free trade?

In the 1840s England adopted a policy of free trade.


6.3 Прочитайте текст и выберите правильный вариант ответа.

1) D.Ricardo made a fortune

a. on the London Stock Exchange;

b. in the Parliament’s House of Commons;

c. serving the British government.

2) Ricardo developed the principle of

a. competitive advantage;

b. conspicuous consumption;

C. comparative advantage.

3) Ricardo argued that it is more profitable for Portugal

a. to produce both wine and cloth;

b. to specialize in the production of cloth;













3. Прочитайте текст и найдите ответы на вопросы.

1. When did John McVeigh retire?

John McVeigh retired in 1989.

2. How many factories did Ford close?

Ford closed 14 factories.

3. How many workers lost their jobs at DaimlerChrysler?

6,000 workers at DaimlerChrysler also lost their jobs.

4. In October 2005, what percentage of new cars sold in the US were

made by American car companies?

By October 2005, American car companies sold only about 40% of the new cars in the US.

5. What was the name of the first car made by Henry Ford?

The name of the first car made by Henry Ford was Model T.

6. How much is Google worth?

Google is worth $129 billion.








Активная лексика


Unit 4

behavior (n) – поведение

contribution (n) – вклад

consumer sovereignty – суверенитет потребителя (право выбора благ)

uncertainty(n) – неопределенность

contemporary (adj) – современный

assumption (n) – предположение, допущение

assertion (n) – заявление, утверждение

to be subject to – подвергаться (воздействию)

consumption (n) – потребление

conspicuous consumption – “показное” потребление

necessities (n) – предметы первой необходимости

leisure class – праздный класс

the wealthy (n) – богатые люди

reverse (v) – изменять, поворачивать в обратном направлении

unscrupulous (adj) – беспринципный, неразборчивый в средствах

to eliminate competition – устранять конкуренцию

free enterprise – свободное предпринимательство

earn (v) – зарабатывать

purchase (n) – покупка

determine (v) – определять, устанавливать

driving force – движущая сила

quest for profit – поиск прибыли/выгоды

fail (v) – терпеть неудачу

to meet demands – удовлетворять требованиям

distinguish (v) – различать

insure (v) – застраховать(ся)

predict (v) – предсказывать

to face the risk – подвергаться риску

manufacturer (n) – производитель, изготовитель

to be entitled to – иметь право на что-либо

issue (n) – спорный вопрос, проблема


Unit 5

to amass a fortune – накопить состояние

financial adviser – финансовый советник

treasury (n) – казна, министерство финансов

stock (n) – акционерный капитал

reason (v) – убеждать, доказывать

interference (n) – вмешательство

equilibrium (n) – равновесие, сбалансированность

assurance (n) – уверенность, убежденность

wage (n) – заработная плата

failure (n) – неудача, крах

to be well under – быть гораздо ниже

interest (n) – (ссудный)процент

public works – общественные работы

idle (adj) – праздный, незанятый

increase (v) – увеличивать(ся), возрастать

prevailing (adj) – преобладающий, широко распространенный

resurgence (n) – возрождение, восстановление

recession (n) – экономический спад

abandon (v) – оставить, отказаться от

in favor of – в пользу



Unit 6

taxation (n) – налогообложение

comparative advantage – сравнительное преимущество

tariff (n) – пошлина

barriers of trade – торговые ограничения

remove (v) – устранять

obtain (v) – получать, приобретать

free trade – свободная торговля

exchange (n) – обмен

to be equal to – быть равным чему-либо

specialize (v) – специализировать(ся)

industrial power – промышленная держава

protection (n) – протекционизм

to adopt a policy – принять политику


Test 2

retire (v) – уйти в отставку, на пенсию

reduce (v) – снизить, сократить

loss (n) – потеря

lose (v) – терять

market share – доля рынка

foreign companies – зарубежные компании

hot rod – высокоскоростной автомобиль

billboard (n) – рекламный щит

mass-produce (v) – организовать массовое производство

oil crisis – нефтяной кризис

to identify with отождествлять


МОДУЛЬ 6 Устная тема


Great Britain

1. Изучите активную лексику урока и повторите слова за диктором:

aircraft (n) – самолет(ы), авиация

develop (v) – развивать(ся)

equipment (n) - оборудование

island (n) - остров

plain (n) - равнина

shipbuilding (n) - судостроение

surface (n) - поверхность

urban (adj) - городской

vast (adj) – огромный, обширный

vary (v) - отличаться

agriculture (n) – сельское хозяйство

yields (n) – урожай


2. Прочитайте текст и выберите правильные ответы на вопросы:

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of…………

a) 5 parts

b) 4 parts

c) 3 parts

2. Great Britain occupies the territory of about ……………….

a) 240,000 square km

b) 444,000 square km

c) 244,000 square km

3. The most part of the population live in ……………………..

a) cities and towns

b) rural areas

c) mountains

4. What is the surface of the country?

a) It’s various.

b) There are only mountains.

c) Plains and rivers make up the country’s surface.

5. British economy is ………………………

a) not developed

b) highly developed

c) developing


3. Подберите правильный перевод к словам и фразам:

A) highly developed a) вся остальная часть

B) all the rest b) основная отрасль промышленности

C) vast plain c) домашний скот

D) mountainous parts d) высокоразвитый

E) chief industry e) обширная равнина

F) crops f) гористая часть

G) livestock g) сель/хоз. Kультуры

A d

B a

C e

D f

E b

F g

G c


4. Дополните выражения из текста предлогами:

1. It consists of

2. is situated on (in)

3. the most important of them

4. one of the chief industries

5. is dedicated to

6. is engaged in agriculture


5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях одним из предложенных слов:

  1. The northern part of the country is mountainous (mountains/mountainous).
  2. One of the chief industries (industrial/industries) is shipbuilding.
  3. The northern and western parts of the country are called Highlands(Lowlands/Highlands).
  4. The population of Great Britain is over (under/over) 60 million.
  5. About 2% (2% / 20%) of the population are engaged in agriculture.


6. Составьте предложения из данных слов и словосочетаний:

  1. 244,000, of, the, occupies, about, square, territory, It, kilometers.


1. Изучите активную лексику урока и повторите слова за диктором:

corn (n) - зерно

cotton (n) - хлопок

industry (n) – отрасль промышленности

coast (n) – берег, побережье

ocean (n) - океан

population (n) - население

racial (adj) - расовый

federation (n) – федерация, союз, объединение

powerful (adj) – сильный, могущественный

stretch (v) - простираться

unite (v) – объединять

2. Прочитайте текст и выберите правильные ответы на вопросы:

1. The territory of the USA is ………than that of Europe.

a) bigger

b) much smaller

c) a little smaller

2. What kind of state is the USA?

a) It’s a federal republic.

b) It’s a constitutional monarchy.

c) It’s a parliamentary republic.

3. Where is the motor-car industry most developed?

a) Detroit

b) Chicago

c) New-York

4. Why is the region of the Middle West called ” Corn Belt”?

a) Because they grow wheat and maize there.

b) Because they buy wheat and maize from other regions.

c) Because cotton is grown there.

5. The USA economy is …………………

a) not developed at all.

b) highly developed.

c) developing.

3. Подберите правильный перевод к словам и фразам:

A) heavy industries a) отрасли тяжелой промышленности

B) practically b) высокомеханизированный

C) highly mechanized c) один единственный

D) widespread d) практически

E) one single e) широко распространенный

F) one sixth f) одна шестая

A a

B d

C b

D e

E c

F f

4. Дополните выражения из текста предлогами:

1. The western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean.

2. The capital of the USA is Washington.

3. was established by the Constitution.

4. unites one sixth of the USA intoone region

5. the industry is developed inSan Francisco.

5. Заполните пропуски в предложениях одним из предложенных слов:

1.The USA lies between (among/between/next to) Mexico and Canada.

2.The US agriculture is highly (higher/highly/high) mechanized.

3.The eastern coast is washed (washed/washing) by the Atlantic Ocean.

4.The USA is a federation of 50 (50/60/30) states.

5.The majority of the population live in towns (towns/villages).

6. Составьте предложения из данных слов и словосочетаний:

1. on, nation, The USA, is, fourth, the, earth, largest, geographically.

The USA is the fourth geographically largest nation on earth.

2. is, Agriculture, in, widespread, Middle West, the.

Agriculture is widespread in the Middle West.

3. stretches, It, southern states, all, over.

It stretches all over the southern states.

4. The USA, powerful, leading, the, in, the, world, is, and, state.

The USA is the leading and powerful state in the world.

5. Its, is, smaller, area, a little, than, that of Europe.

Its area is a little smaller than that of Europe.

7. Составьте план и кратко изложите содержание текста в письменной форме.

1) Geographical position of the USA

2) The territory and population of the USA

3) Industry and agriculture of the USA

The USA is a large country. Its area is only a little smaller than that of Europe. It is 9 million square kilometers. The USA lies in the central part of the North American continent between Canada and Mexico.

The population of the USA is more than 281 million people. It represents practically all racial and national groups.

The USA is the leading and powerful state in the world. It is a highly developed industrial country. Its agriculture is highly mechanized.

Переводы текстов


Thorstein Veblen (1857 – 1929)

In 1899 conventional wisdom of the economists of that day was jolted with the publication of Veblen’s The Theory of the Leisure Class. A professor of economics at the University of Chicago, Veblen said much about contemporary economics and social behavior that angered and upset his colleagues.

In what may be his most famous contribution, Veblen challenged the assumptions built into the laws of supply and demand. One of those assumptions was that of ‘consumer sovereignty’. Veblen questioned the assertion that the consumer was a king who demanded and received the best goods and services at the lowest prices. Instead, he argued, consumers were subject to all kinds of social and psychological pressures that led them to make some very unwise decisions.

To illustrate, he coined the term conspicuous consumption to describe the tendency of the ‘leisure class’ (the wealthy) to buy goods and services simply to impress others. This, in turn, led middle class consumers, and even the poor, to imitate the wealthy by buying goods for similar purposes. When that occurred, it was possible for the law of demand to be reversed. Quantity demanded increased at a high price rather than at a low one. For example, the demand for a 1-ounce bottle of an unknown brand of perfume priced at US $1 was likely to be less than the same perfume selling for US $15 an ounce.

As for the other side of the market, Veblen argued that the desire for profits drove business interests into doing unscrupulous things. Some of these included efforts to eliminate competition, restrict output, build ever larger combinations of existing firms, and separate those who owned America’s corporations from those who managed them. This, he predicted, would result in wasted resources and the inability of the economy to reach its full potential. From these observations, Veblen concluded that laissez-faire capitalism was probably destined to be replaced in the long run with a system more attuned to the needs of the People.

Frank Knight (1885 – 1972)

A professor of economics at the University of Chicago, Frank Knight advocated free enterprise and laissez-faire politics. Knight pointed out that except for the basic necessities of life the purchase of anything could be described as ‘conspicuous consumption’. Since, he noted, even Veblen would have conceded that people need more than the bare necessities, who was to say which purchases were reasonable? Should the government or some other higher authority decide what would be offered for sale? Of course not, Knight concluded, consumer demand ought to determine what goods and services would be provided.

Turning to the supply side of the market, Knight defended profits as the driving force behind business. The quest for profit would move business to produce whatever the economy wanted. Meanwhile, the inescapable punishment of financial loss awaited those firms who failed to meet the market’s demands. In his famous work, Risk, Uncertainty and Profit (1921), Knight answered critics who, like Veblen, had questioned the legitimacy of profits.

Profits, he said, were the reward earned by business for accepting the uncertainties of the market. In this he distinguished between risk(which can be predicted and against which one can be insured) and the uncertainty of events that cannot be predicted. Everyone, for example, facesthe risk of illness and can be insured against it. But sweater manufacturers can never know with certainty that the styles that they are producing today will still be in demand when they appear in the stores six months from now. Therefore, those manufacturers who guess correctly are entitled to the rewards they earn.

Meanwhile, those who produced the wrong style or color will be motivated to do better next season or face ruin.

Economists and others still debate the issues raised by Thorstein Veblen’s challenges to the market system and Frank Knight’s responses to them.


Торстейн Веблен и Фрэнк Найт

Торстейн Веблен (1857 – 1929)

В 1899 году традиционная теория экономистов тех дней была поколеблена публикацией Теории праздного класса Веблена. Профессор экономики чикагского университета, Веблен, много сказал о современной экономике и социальном поведении такого, что рассердило и расстроило его коллег.

Самый известный вклад Веблена состоит в том, что он подверг сомнению предположения, лежащие в основе законов спроса и предложения. Одно из предположений состояло в “суверенитете потребителя”. Веблен поставил под сомнение утверждение о том, что потребитель – король, который нуждается в лучших товарах и услугах по самым низким ценам и получает их. Вместо этого он отстаивал утверждение о том, что потребители подвержены всем видам социального и психологического давления, в результате чего они принимают весьма неразумные решения.

В качестве иллюстрации он придумал термин “показное” потребление,описывающий тенденцию ‘праздного класса’ (богатых людей) покупать товары и услуги просто для того, чтобы произвести впечатление на других. Это, в свою очередь, приводит к тому, что потребители, относящиеся к среднему классу, и даже бедные подражают богатым, покупая товары с теми же целями. Когда это происходит, закон спроса изменяет свое направление. Растет спрос на дорогие, а не на дешевые товары. Например, спрос на флакон духов емкостью в 1 унцию от неизвестного производителя по цене 1доллар США был ниже, чем на такие же духи, продаваемые по 15 долларов США за унцию.

Что касается другой стороны рынка, Веблен утверждал, что погоня за прибылью толкает бизнес на недобросовестные поступки. Это попытки устранить конкуренцию, ограничить производство, создать все больше комбинаций из уже существующих фирм, отделить тех, кто владеет американскими корпорациями, от тех, кто управляет ими. Он предсказывал, что это приведет к нерациональному использованию ресурсов и неспособности экономики достичь своего полного потенциала. Исходя из этого, Веблен пришел к заключению, что капитализм невмешательства в далекой перспективе будет заменен системой, которая более созвучна нуждам людей.

Фрэнк Найт (1885 – 1972)

Профессор экономики чикагского университета, Фрэнк Найт, выступал в защиту свободного предпринимательства и политики невмешательства. Найт указывал, что за исключением предметов первой необходимости, любую покупку можно отнести к ‘показному потреблению’. Поскольку, отмечал он, даже Веблен вынужден признать, что людям нужно что-то еще кроме предметов первой необходимости, кто может сказать, какие именно покупки являются разумными? Должно ли правительство или другие власти решать, что именно следует продавать? Конечно, нет, делал вывод Найт, потребительский спрос должен определить, какие именно товары и услуги следует предлагать.

Обращаясь к рыночному предложению, Найт защищал прибыли как движущую силу предпринимательства. Погоня за прибылью будет побуждать бизнес производить то, что нужно экономике. Между тем, неминуемое наказание в виде финансовых потерь ожидает те фирмы, которые не смогли удовлетворить рыночный спрос. В своей знаменитой работе Риск, неопределенность и прибыль(1921) Найт ответил критикам, которые, подобно Веблену, ставили под сомнение законность прибыли.

Прибыль, сказал он, это вознаграждение, получаемое предпринимателем за принятие неопределенностей рынка. Он разграничивал риск(который можно предсказать и против которого можно застраховаться) и неопределенностьсобытий, которую невозможно предсказать. Например, каждый рискует заболеть и может застраховаться на этот случай. Но производители свитеров никогда не могут быть уверены в том, что выпускаемые ими в настоящее время модели все еще будут пользоваться спросом, когда они появятся на прилавках спустя шесть месяцев. Поэтому, те производители, которые правильно угадают, получат заслуженное вознаграждение.

Между тем, те производители, кто выпустил свитера не того фасона или цвета, получат мотивацию лучше работать в следующем сезоне или разорятся.

Экономисты и не только они, все еще обсуждают проблемы, вытекающие из сомнений Торстейна Веблена относительно рыночной системы, и из ответов Фрэнка Найта.



Джон Мейнард Кейнс (1883 – 1946)

DAVID RICARDO (1772-1823)

ДАВИД РИККАРДО (1772 – 1823)


Соединенное королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии расположено на Британских островах. Оно состоит из четырех частей: Англии, Уэльса, Шотландии и Северной Ирландии. Англия, Уэльс и Шотландия находятся на территории Великобритании. Северная Ирландия расположена в северной части Ирландии.

Территория Соединенного королевства – около 244000 квадратных километров. Население - более 60 миллионов человек. Около 80% населения живет в городах. Столица страны – Лондон.

Поверхность Великобритании очень изменчива. Северная и западная части страны являются гористыми и называются Highlands (горная страна). Вся остальная территория (юг, восток и центр) представляет собой обширную равнину и называется Lowlands (низменностью). Горы не очень высокие. Реки не длинные. Самые важные из них Северн и Темза. В горных частях страны много красивых озер.

Великобритания – это высокоразвитая промышленная страна. Она известна как один из самых крупных в мире производителей и экспортеров железа и стали, машинного оборудования и электроники, химикатов и текстиля, самолетов и навигационного оборудования. Одной из ведущих отраслей промышленности страны является кораблестроение.

Три четверти земли Соединенного королевства отведены под сельское хозяйство. Около двух процентов населения Соединенного королевства занимаются сельским хозяйством, но урожаи на английских фермах и пастбищах очень высокие. Пшеница, ячмень, овес и картофель составляют основу выращиваемого урожая. Овцы, крупный рогатый скот и свиньи представляют собой самое многочисленное поголовье скота.

The USA is a large country. Its area is only a little smaller than that of Europe. It is 9 million square kilometers. The USA lies in the central part of the North American continent between Canada and Mexico. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

The population of the USA is more than 281 million people. It represents practically all racial and national groups. There are 26 mln Negroes and half a million Indians in the USA. 73 per cent of the population live in towns.

The capital of the USA is Washington, named after the first president of the USA G. Washington. The USA is a federal republic. It’s a federation of 50 states. It was established by the Constitution in 1787.

The USA is the leading and powerful state in the world. It is a highly developed industrial country. Its agriculture is highly mechanized. The heavy industries are in the region of the Great Lakes, in Detroit and Chicago. The motor-car industry is highly developed in Detroit. Shipbuilding industry is in San Francisco, the textile industry is in the north-east and the south.

Agriculture is widespread in the Middle West, which is the region of wheat and maize called the “Corn Belt”. One single product, cotton, unites one sixth of the USA into a region called the “Cotton Belt”. It stretches all over the southern states. The main industrial centres in the USA are New-York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco and Los Angeles.



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