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Translate the text into Russian.


4. Use each of the following word combinations in sentences of your own:


travel across Russia by train

intact beautiful forests

The climate ranges from temperate to continental

the climate is fully continental

warm, humid monsoon conditions




the borders of Ukraine and Kazakhstan

at a rapid rate

fishing industry

ethnic groups








basic general education

secondary vocational education

Retell the text.

Top Sixteen Reasons for Studying a Foreign Language: give your reasons for studying languages and fill in the gaps.

  1. In case you end up becoming a ________________ for your government.
  2. In case you end up becoming _________________ on international flights.
  3. To correctly ____________ at a foreign food restaurant.
  4. To study _____________.
  5. To understand the words to foreign songs like _____________ and ______________.
  6. To be able to ________________.
  7. To travel ________________ with more ease.
  8. To increase your chances of getting ________________.
  9. Learning foreign languages opens up _________________________ that didn’t even exist several years ago.
  10. In case your _________________ is from another country
  11. To impress _____________.
  12. Businessmen want to pick up foreign languages because ________________________ on a large scale over the world.
  13. Some people learn foreign languages just to _______________________ during their spare time. They want to __________________________ in different languages.
  14. People also read _______________________ that helps them open a new world, to learn about other peoples’ cultures, because language is a manifestation of the culture.
  15. Students ____________________ to be better educated.
  16. Scientists and engineers must learn foreign languages in order not to _________________. They are greatly interested in the achievements in the science and technology in other countries. Besides, a lot of handbooks, manuals and technical specifications are _____________________.


The Articles

an + vowel [әn]: an umbrella, an ocean, an economist

a + consonant [ә]: a ball, a boy, a book


The Indefinite Article.

-a = 'one'.

• a (or an) is used with countable nouns to indicate one.

Can I have a cup of tea?

I've got a daughter and two sons.

• a is not used before a plural noun (NOT I've got a sons).

• a is not used before uncountable nouns (NOT I want a petrol, please). But we use it when there is an adjective which describes the noun: a highly educated population, an important role

Don't forget a:

—Do you want a cup of tea? (not 'Do you want cup of tea?')

—Alice works in a bank,(not 'in bank')

—I want to ask a question,(not 'ask question')

—When I was a child,I liked reading stories.

- Birmingham is a large city in central England.

-an (not a) before a/e/i/o/u:

—They live in an old house, (not 'a old house.')

—A mouse is an animal. It's a small animal.

—Can you give me an example, please?

- This is an interesting book.

- I bought a hat and an umbrella.

also an hour(‘h’ is not pronounced: an (h)our)

but a university a Europeancountry

We use a/an for jobs etc.:

- 'What's your job?'

'I'm a dentist.' (not 'I'm dentist.')

- 'What does she do?' 'She's an engineer.

- Would you like to be a teacher?

- Beethoven was a composer.

- Picasso was a famous painter.

- Are you a student?

another(an + other) is one word (not 'an other'):

- Can I have another cupof coffee?

- Open another window.It's very hot.


1. Fill in the indefinite article: a or an.

apple ball cat doll egg fat grass hat Indian jam kite lamb man orange nurse onion purse queen rain star train umbrella van watch box yacht zoo object

Enumerate the nouns that need an indefinite article. Which nouns from the list need no article at all?

Family Relations:

sister brother widow widower child children daughter son stepmother stepfather stepsister half brother mother (Mum) father (Dad) husband wife parents bachelor mother-in-law father-in-law sister-in-law daughter-in-law son-in-law cousin spinster niece nephew uncle aunt grandparents grandmother (Granny) grandfather grandchildren granddaughter grandson twins


Fill in the indefinite article: a or an.

1. __ elephant

2. __ university

3. __ umbrella

4. __ ticket

5. __ honest man

6. __ half-hour lessons

7. __ one-hour lesson

8. __ useful book

9. __ X-ray

10. __ European

11. __ hand

12. __ underpass

13. __ unit

14. __ CD

15. __ exam

16. __ school


What are these things? Choose from the list.


bird flower city island fruit animal game mountain planet composer river tool painter musical instrument vegetable


1. A duck is ___

2. A carrot is ___

3. A rose is ___

4. A piano is ___

5. A cow is ___

6. Picasso is ___

7. Jamaica is ___

8. Tennis is ___

9. A hammer is ___

10. Everest is ___

11. Boston is ___

12. Beethoven is ___

13. Jupiter is ___

14. A pear is ___

15. The Amazon is ___


Write sentences from the brackets (). Write a or an where necessary.

  1. (I bought newspaper)I I bought a newspaper
  2. (we went to party last night)…………………………………………………..
  3. (my brother is artist) ………………………………………………………….
  4. (it’s beautiful day today) …………………………………………………….
  5. (I ate sandwich and apple) …………………………………………………...
  6. (Britain is industrial country) ………………………………………………...


The Indefinite Article A and the Definite Article The

• a is used with countable nouns to indicate one (>- Exercise 8):

I've got two bikes and a car.

She's a lawyer.

He's a teacher.

a or the is not usually used before names of villages, towns, streets, cities,

countries or continents: She lives in Paris. We went to India.

the is used when we speak about things that we know or can understand or when a word is used a second time: He gave me a knife and a spoon. The spoon was dirty. I bought a pen and some paper, but I left the pen in the shop, the 2002 census

the is used before names of seas, rivers, groups of islands or mountains, kingdoms, republics, deserts, plural names of countries: the Atlantic Ocean, the River Thames, the Netherlands, the Arctic (land and sea), the Antarctic (land and sea), the Alps, the United States of America, the United Arab, the Pacific Ocean, the Black Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Baltic, the Urals, the Far East, Emirates, the Sahara, the United Kingdom, the Nile, the Gobi Desert

the is used in the + noun + of: the Constitution of 1993, the capital of Russia, the life of Napoleon

the is used when only one object exists: the earth, the sun, the River Thames, the President, the legislative power, the State Duma, the Federal Assembly, the Government, the Prime Minister, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, at a rapid rate, the world

the is used with adjectives in the superlative degree:the largest ethnic groups


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