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Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2

Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2

intricate ['mtnkit] — сложный, запутанный, electronic circuit [sbkt'romk 'sa:kit] — электронная цепь, схема

to operate switches [ops'reit 'switfiz] — приводить в дей­ствие переключатели

to store numbers ['sto: 'плтЬзг] — запоминать числа


13 Unit 1. Information-Dependent Society

to manipulate [ms'nipjuleit] — управлять; обращаться; преобразовывать

to input / to feed in — вводить (информацию)

to turn on = to switch on — включать

to turn off = to switch off— выключать

to process data [prou'ses 'delta] — обрабатывать данные

to supply [sa'plai] — подавать, вводить, снабжать, обес­печивать

addition [s'difn] — сложение

subtraction [sAb'trajkJh] — вычитание

division [di'vrjn] —деление

multiplication ['тлИгрп'кег/п] — умножение

exponentiation [eksps'nenji'eijn] — возведение в степень

user ['juzs] — пользователь

input device ['input di'vais] — устройство ввода

disk drive ['disk 'draiv] — дисковое запоминающее уст­ройство, дисковод

tape drive ['teip 'draiv] — запоминающее устройство на магнитной ленте

cathode-ray tube ['kseOsd rei 4ju:b] — электроннолучевая трубка

to make decisions — принимать решения

instantaneously [jnstan'teinjssli] — мгновенно, немедлен­но

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 18

on-board environment — бортовое окружение pattern recognition — распознавание образов

TESTS

1. Выберите вариант, который лучше всего выражает глав­
ную идею текста 2.

a) Computers are devices that accept information in the form of instructions.

в) The switches are usualy in one of two states: magne­tized or demagnetized.

c) Computers are remarkable devices serving for process­ing and storage the information and for solving problems.

TESTS

1. Подберите вместо пропусковподходящее по смыслу слово.

1. British scientists invented a___ way of multiplying and

dividing.

a) mechanical; b) electrical; c) optical

2. A new branch of mathematics,____ , was invented in

England and Germany independently.

a) mechanics; b) arithmetics; c) calculus

3. A young American clerk invented a means of coding
_____ by punched cards.

a) letters; b) data; c) numbers

4. Soon punched cards were replaced by___ terminals.

a) printer; b) scanner; c) keyboard

5. Mark I was the first_____ computer that could solve

mathematical problems.

a) analog; 1?) digital; c) mechanical

6. J. von Neumann simplified his computer by storing in­
formation in a_____ code.

a) analytical; b) numerical; c) binary

7. Vacuum tubes could control and____ electric signals.

a) calculate; b) amplify; c) generate

8. The first generation computers were_____ and often

burned out.

a) uncomfortable; b) uncommunicative; c) unreliable

9. Computers of the second generation used____ which

reduced computational time greatly.

a) transistors; b) integrated circuits; c) vacuum tubes

10. Due to_____ the development of the fourth generation

computers became possible.

a) microelectronics; b) miniaturization; c) microminia­turization


41 Unit 3. History of Computers

2. Выберите правильный переводпредложений, содержа­щих неличные формы глагола (Infinitive, Gerund, Participle I, Participle II).

1. That was the machine provided with the necessary facts
about the problem to be solved.

а) Машину обеспечили необходимыми фактами, чтобы она решила проблему.

*б) То была машина, снабженная необходимой ин­формацией о задаче, которую предстояло решить. в) Эту машину обеспечили необходимой информа­цией о решаемой задаче.

2. The computers designed to use 1С were called third gen-

eration computers.

а) Компьютеры сконструировали для использования
ИС и назвали их третьим поколением.

б) Компьютеры назывались третьим поколением,
потому что в них использовались ИС.

*в) Компьютеры, сконструированные, чтобы исполь­зовать ИС, назывались компьютерами третьего по­коления.

3. Mark I was the first machine to figure out mathematical
problems.

а) Первая машина для вычисления математических проблем была Марк I.

•б) Марк I явилась первой машиной для вычисления математических задач.

•в) Марк I была первой машиной, которая вычисля­ла математические задачи.

4. Early computers using vacuum tubes could perform com-

putations in milliseconds.

■ а) Первые компьютеры, использующие электронные лампы, могли выполнять вычисления в течение мил­лисекунд.

■б) Ранние компьютеры использовали вакуумные лампы, которые выполняли вычисления за миллисе­кунды.

в) Рано компьютеры, использующие электронные
трубки, выполняли вычисления за миллисекунды.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 42

5. Vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals were

invented by Neumann.

а) Изобретенные Нойманом вакуумные лампы регу­
лировали и усиливали электрические сигналы.

б) Нойман изобрел электронные лампы для управ­
ления и усиления электрических сигналов.

■в) Электронные лампы, которые регулировали и уси­ливали электрические сигналы, были изобретены Нойманом.

6. Neumann's machine called the EDVAC was designed to
store both data and instructions.

а)'Неймановскую машину, называемую EDVAC, сконструировали для хранения информации и ко­манд.

-б) Машина Ноймана, названная EDVAC, была созда­на, чтобы запоминать как информацию, так и ко­манды.

в) Машину Ноймана, которая хранила данные и
инструкции, назвали EDVAC.

7. Computers were developed to perform calculations for
military and scientific purposes.

-а) Компьютерыбыли созданы, чтобы выполнять вычисления для военных и научных целей.

б) Компьютеры создали для выполнения военных и
научных вычислений.

в) Созданные компьютеры выполняли вычисления
военного и научного назначения.

8. An American clerk invented a means of coding the data
by punching holes into cards.

а) Американский служащий изобрел посредством кодирования информации перфокарту. »б) Американский клерк изобрел перфокарту, коди­руя информацию.

^ в) Американский служащий изобрел средство шиф­рования информации путем пробивания отверстий в карте.


Unit 4 DATA PROCESSING CONCEPTS

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

data processing ['deita prou'sesirj] — обработка информа­ции (данных)

to convert [ksn'vait] — преобразовывать; переводить (в др. единицы)

to accomplish [a'komphj] —завершать, заканчивать; осу­ществлять, выполнять.

to house ['haus] — помещать, размещать

to improve [im'pru:v] — улучшать, совершенствовать

to control [kan'troul] — управлять, регулировать; управ­ление, регулирование

to store ['sto:] — хранить, запоминать, заносить (разме­щать) в памяти

storage [fstD:nd3] — запоминающее устройство, память; хранение

resource [n'sors] — ресурс; средство; возможность facility [fa'silrti] —- устройство; средство facilities — приспособления; возможности

equipment [I'kwipmsnt] — оборудование; аппаратура; приборы; устройства

available [s'veibbl] — доступный; имеющийся (в нали­чии); возможный

display [dis'plei] — дисплей; устройство (визуального) отображения; показ

manner ['тзепэ] — способ, образ (действий)

sequence ['sikwsns] — последовательность, порядок (сле­дования)

sucessively [ssk'sesivh] — последовательно

data storage hierarchy [hais'raiki] — иерархия (последова­тельность) запоминания информации (данных)



45 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 44

to enter ['enta] — входить; вводить (данные); заносить, записывать

comprehensive groupings — полные, обширные, универ­сальные образования

meaningful ['mi:ninful] — имеющий смысл; значащий (о данных)

item ['aitsm] — элемент; составная часть record ['reko:d] — запись, регистрация; записывать, ре­гистрировать

file ['fail] — файл; заносить (хранить) в файл set — набор; множество; совокупность; серия; группа; система

data base ['deita 'beis] — база данных

related [n'leitid] — смежный; взаимосвязанный; относя­щийся (к ч.-л.)

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, как вы понимаете термины «обработка информации» и «иерархия запоминания ин­формации».

Text 1. DATA PROCESSING AND DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS

The necessary data are processed by a computer to become useful information. In fact this is the definition of data process­ing. Data are a collection of facts — unorganized but able to be-organized into useful information. Processing is aseries of ac­tions or operations that convert inputs into outputs. When we*1 speak of data processing, the input is data, and the output is useful information. So, we can define data processing as a se­ries of actions or operations that converts data into useful in­formation.

We use the term data processing system to include the resourc­es that are used to accomplish the processing of data. There are four types of resources: people, materials, facilities, and equip­ment. People provide input to computers, operate them, and use their output. Materials, such as boxes of paper and printer rib­bons, are consumed in great quantity. Facilities are required to house the computer equipment, people and materials.


The need for converting facts into useful information is not a phenomenon of modern life. Throughout history, and even prehistory, people have found it necessary to sort data into forms that were easier to understand. For example, the ancient Egyp­tians recorded the ebb and flow of the Nile River and used this information to predict yearly crop yields.*Today computers con­vert data about land and water into recommendations to farm­ers on crop planting. Mechanical aids to computation were de­veloped and improved upon in Europe, Asia, and America throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centu­ries. Modern computers are marvels of an electronics technol­ogy that continues to produce smaller, cheaper, and more pow­erful components.

Data storage hierarchy

It is known that data, once entered, are organized and stored in successively more comprehensive groupings. Generally, these groupings are called a data storage hierarchy. The general group­ings of any data storage hierarchy are as follows.

1) Characters, which are all written language symbols: let­ters, numbers, and special symbols. 2) Data elements, which are meaningful collections of related characters. Data elements are also called data items or fields. 3) Records, which are collections of related data elements. 4) Files, which are collections of re­lated records. A set of related files is called a data base or a data bank.

3. Просмотритетекст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­пользуя информацию текста 1.

1. What is processing? 2. What is data processing? 3. What does the term of data processing system mean? 4. What basic operations does a data processing system include? 5. What is inputting / storing / outputting information? 6. What do you understand by resources? 7. How did ancient Egyptians convert facts into useful information? 8. When were mechanical aids for computation developed? 9. What does data storage hierarchy mean? 10. What are the general groupings of any data storage hierarchy?

* 4. Найдите в тексте английские эквивалентыследующих словосочетаний:

Системы обработки информации; определение (терми­на) обработки данных; совокупность фактов; последова­тельность действий; преобразование входных данных в полезную информацию; включать ресурсы; завершить об­работку данных; обеспечивать ввод информации в компь­ютер; ленты принтера; расходовать в большом количестве; размещать компьютерное оборудование; нуждаться (тре­бовать) в приспособлениях; явление современной жизни; на протяжении доисторического периода; превращать ин­формацию в выражения; регистрировать отливы и прили­вы; прогнозировать урожай зерновых культур; механичес-


47 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

кие средства вычисления; ввод данных; хранение данных; первоначальная обработка данных; дополнительная обра­ботка; выдача полезной информации; напечатанное сооб­щение; зрительное отображение; последовательность запо­минания информации; записанные символы языка; элементы информации; база данных; набор взаимосвязан­ных файлов.

5. Переведите следующие цепочки существительных:

Data resource; storage resource; network resource; security resource; system resource.

Communication facilities; data base facilities; display facil­ities; management facilities.

Distance control; device control; keyboard control; position control; program control.

Computer storage; laser storage; file storage; disk storage; data storage hierarchy.

Character sequence; instruction sequence; message se­quence; pulse sequence.

Batch file; catalog file; data file; help file; input file; output file; menu file; user file.

Command input; data input; disk input; file input; keyboard input; program input.

6. Подберите к терминам, данным в левой колонке, опре­
деления, представленные справа.

1.Computer ' a) the set of instructions that direct

the operations of computers;

2. Computer literacy • b) a part of a computer, entering

data into the device;

3. A program c) facts unorganized but able to be

organized;

4. Data d) the output of a data processing

system;

5. Data processing . e) possessing sufficient knowledge

of how computers work and what they can do to use them as problem-solving tools;

6. Data processing • f) a series of operations that results

in the conversion of data system into useful information;


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 48

7. Input .g) an electronic device performing

calculations on numerical data;

8. Output h) an electronic device accepting

the data processing results from the computer and displaying them;

9. Useful information i) a set of related files;

10. Data bank j) the resources required to accom-

plish the processing of data. These resources are personnel, material, facilities and equip­ment.

7. Проанализируйте неличные формы глагола и правиль­но переведите предложения.

1. Data are processed to become useful information. 2. We use the term data processing to include the resources applied for processing of information. 3. Resources required for accom­plishing the processing of data are called data processing sys­tem. 4. Processing is a series of operations converting inputs into outputs. 5. Facilities are required to house the computer equip­ment. 6. Egyptians used the information to predict crop yields.

7. Information to be put into the computer for processing should
be coded into ones and zeroes. 8. Processing is operations on data
to convert them into useful information. 9. The first machines
designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for
business data processing. 10. Hollerith built one machine to
punch the holes and the other to tabulate the collected data.

8. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

manual ['maenjusl] — ручной, выполняемый вручную to take advantage of smth — воспользоваться ч.-л.

capability [,keip9'bihti] — способность; возможность; характеристика

accuracy ['sekjurasr] — точность; правильность; четкость (изображения)

correctly [ks'rektli] — правильно; верно

to eliminate [e'hmmeit] — устранять; удалять; отменять; ликвидировать


49 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

to make errors ['ersz] — допускать ошибки (погрешно­сти)

error-prone — подверженный ошибкам

to remain vulnerable [n'mein 'vAlnorabl] — оставаться уяз­вимым, чувствительным

invalid data [m'vashd] — неверные, неправильные, недо­пустимые данные

communications networks — сети передачи данных; сети связи

travel ['traevsl] — перемещение; прохождение; путь; ход

instant response ['instant n'spons] — мгновенный ответ (реакция)

to respond [n'spond] — отвечать; реагировать

access ['aeksas] —доступ; обращение; обращаться, иметь доступ

capacity of storage [ks'paesiti ev 'stond3] — объем (емкость) памяти

to retrieve [n'trkv] — извлекать, выбирать (данные); вос­станавливать (файл)

value ['vaslju] — значение; величина; значимость; цен­ность; оценка; оценивать

objective [sb'd3ektiv] — цель; требование; целевая фун­кция

cost-effective ['kost I'fektiv] — экономичный; экономи­чески оправданный

challenge ['tfaelmd3] — трудность; препятствие; представ­лять трудность

9. Прочтите текст и скажите, каковы основные достоин­ства компьютеров. Переведите текст.

Text 2. ADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER DATA PROCESSING

Computer-oriented data processing systems or just computer data processing systems are not designed to imitate manual sys­tems. They should combine the capabilities of both humans and


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 50

computers. Computer data processing systems can be designed to take advantage of four capabilities of. computers.

1. Accuracy. Once data have been entered correctly into the
computer component of a data processing system, the need for
further manipulation by humans is eliminated, and the possi­
bility of error is reduced. Computers, when properly pro­
grammed, are also unlikely to make computational errors. Of
course, computer systems remain vulnerable to the entry by
humans of invalid data.

2. Ease of communications. Data, once entered, can be trans­
mitted wherever needed by communications networks. These
may be either earth or satellite-based systems. A travel reserva­
tions system is an example of a data communications network.
Reservation clerks throughout the world may make an enquiry
about transportation or lodgings and receive an almost instant
response. Another example is an office communications system
that provides executives with access to a reservoir of date, called
a corporate data base, from their personal microcomputer work
stations.

 

3. Capacity of storage. Computers are able to store vast
amounts of information, to organize it, and to retrieve it in ways
that are far beyond the capabilities of humans. The amount of
data that can be stored on devices such as magnetic discs is con­
stantly increasing. All the while, the cost per character of data
stored is decreasing.

4. Speed. The speed, at which computer data processing sys­
tems can respond, adds to their value. For example, the travel
reservations system mentioned above would not be useful if cli­
ents had to wait more than a few seconds for a response. The
response required might be a fraction of a second.

Thus, an important objective in the design of computer data processing systems is to allow computers to do what they do best and to free humans from routine, error-prone tasks. The most cost-effective computer data processing system is the one that does the job effectively and at the least cost. By using comput­ers in a cost-effective manner, we will be better able to respond to the challenges and opportunities of our post-industrial, in­formation-dependent society.


51 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

10. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1. What capabilities should data-processing systems combine when designed? 2. What are the main advantages of comput­ers? 3. What do you know of computers accuracy? 4. What is the function of communication networks? 5. Give examples of a data communication network. 6. What do you understand by capacity storage? 7. What other values of computer data pro­cessing systems do you know? 8. What is an important objec­tive in the design of computer data processing systems? 9. What is the most effective computer data processing system? 10. What is the best way of responding to the challenges and opportuni­ties of our post-industrial society?

11. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Система обработки информации компьютером; систе­ма ориентирования на обработку данных компьютером; сочетать возможности человека и машины; ограничивать управление; вряд ли допустят ошибку; оставаться уязви­мым; недопустимые данные; легкость осуществления свя­зи; сеть передачи информации; системы, основанные на использовании спутников; служащие по резервированию жилья; получить мгновенный ответ; наводить справки; хранилище данных; корпоративная база данных; объем памяти; запоминать огромное количество информации; извлекать информацию; добавить значимости; упомяну­тый выше; доля секунды; подверженный ошибкам; эконо­мически оправданный,

12. Вспомните значение новых слов и догадайтесь о зна­
чении их производных.

То eliminate: elimination; eliminable; eliminator; unlimited.

To respond: respondent; response; responsible; irresponsible; responsibility.

Accuracy: inaccuracy; accurate; inaccurate; accurately.

Correctly: correct; incorrect; to correct; correction; correc­tional; corrective; corrector.

Vulnerable: invulnerable; vulnerability; invulnerability.

Invalid: valid; invalidity; validity;

Access: accessible; inaccessible; accessibility; inaccessibility.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 52

13. Преобразуйте предложения, содержащие модальные
глаголы, в а) прошедшее время; б) будущее время.

1. Computers can replace people in dull routine work. 2. The program is a set of instructions that may also include data to be processed. 3. Computer-controled robots must increase the pro­ductivity of industry. 4. They can help in making different de­cisions. 5. The pupils may work with computers at the lessons. 6. Electric pulses can move at the speed of light. 7. Storage de­vices must have capacities for the input, output data and pro­grams and for intermediate results. 8. Business minicomputers can perform to 100 million operations per second. 9. In order to solve scientific problems researchers must deal with the lan­guage of science — mathematics. 10. Programmers must write application programs in a way that computers can understand.

14. Составьте на русском языке аннотации к текстам,
предложенным ниже. Обратите внимание на то, что
стиль аннотаций, как правило, имеет безличностный
характер. Выберите и используйте при работе следую­
щие клише:

Статья (текст) посвящена проблеме/ вопросу ... В начале статьи

речь идет о ...;

дается определение...;

обосновывается значимость ...;

привлекается внимание к ...
Далее

описывается...;

рассказывается...;

рассматривается...;

излагается ...
В частности,

отмечается, например, ...;

подробно излагается...;

описывается схема...;

указывается ...;

доказывается мысль...
Наконец

раскрывается...
В заключение

приводятся примеры


53 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

Подытоживая сказанное, следует отметить... Как мне кажется, статья может представлять инте­рес для ... Думается, статья может оказаться полезной для ...

1. The ENIAC (1943-1946)

The first all-electronic computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) was developed at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering of the University of Pennsyl­vania. It was developed as a result of a military need. J.Presper Eckert and John Mauchly proposed the machine to solve the problem of calculating firing tables for new weapons.

The ENIAC weighed 90 tons, its 18.000 vacuum tubes de­manded 140 kilowatts of electric power. Although it was fully electronic, the ENIAC had two major shortcomings: it could store and manipulate only a very limited amount of informa­tion, and its programs were wired on board. Since its programs were hardwired — that is, the programs operating the comput­er were established by physically changing the patterns of the wires interconnecting the vacuum tubes — the machine was not so flexible in operation. These limitations made it difficult to detect errors and to change the programs. And yet, the project was successful and the ENIAC was used for many years to solve ballistic problems.

2. The EDVAC (1946-1952)

Although the idea of an automatic computing engine oc­curred first to Charles Babbage in 1832, it was more than a cen­tury later, in 1945, that John von Neumann set out the princi­ples that fixed the pattern of computer design.

Dr.John von Neumann, professor of mathematics at the Prinston Institute of Advanced Study, together with P.Eckert, J.Mauchly and Goldstine became a project member of a new improved computer, the Electronic Discrete Variable Comput­er (EDVAC). Von Neumann was a major contributor to the project as he developed the concept of storing instructions as well as data in the memory of the computer. As a result it be­came possible to replace the writing board, which so seriously handicapped the operation of the ENIAC.

Von Neumann is also given a share of the credit for intro­ducing the idea of storing both instructions and data in a bina­ry code instead of decimal numbers or human-readable words.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 54

3. The UNIVAC 1(1951)

P.Eckert and J.Mauchly left the EDVAC project to form their own company and built the UNIVAC I computer. UNIVAC stands for UNI\fersal Automatic Computer. The first UNIVAC was installed in the Census Bureau in 1951, and it was used continuously for 10 years. From the University laboratories the computer finally entered the wider world in 1951 with the in­vention of first UNIVAC I. It was the first digital computer which was not "one of a kind", it was produced in quantity.

In 1952 IBM (International Business Machine) introduced the 701 commercial computer. Although limited in storage ca­pacity by modern standards, the 701 could add a column of 10-digit numbers as tall as the Empire State Building in one sec­ond. Very soon improved models of the UNIVAC I and other 701-series machines were introduced. In 1953 IBM produced the IBM 650 which used a magnetic drum for storage and was popular with business and science.

15. Поменяйтесь вариантами и выполните письменно пе­ревод предложенных выше текстов.

TESTS

1. Подберите вместо пропусков подходящее по смыслу слово

1. Computer data_____ system frees humans from routine

error-prone tasks.

a) counting; b) computing: c),processing

2. Computers can store vast amount of information to orga-

nize it and______ it.

a) to travel; b) to retrieve; c) to respond

3. The entered data can be transmitted by____ networks.

a) communications; b) conversions; c) procession

4. The possibility of_____ is reduced if data were correct-

ly put into the data processing system, a) character; b) access; c) error

5. Computer data processing systems can____ at a frac­
tion of a second.

a) receive; b) respond; c) retrieve


55 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

6. Computer systems are vulnerable to the entry of____

data.

a), invalid; b) invariable; c) invisible

7. As soon as data were entered into the system correctly, the

human_____ is limited.

a) computation; b) information; ^manipulation

8. The amount of data stored on magnetic discs is constant-

ly______ •

a) decreasing; b>increasing; c) eliminating

2. Согласуйте слова в левой колонке с их интерпретацией, предложенной справа.

1. Inputting a) saving information for further pro-

cessing;

2. Character . b) the process of producing useful in-

formation;

3. Database c) meaningful collections of related

characters;

4. Data elements d) the most common input device;

5. Controlling ^e) the part of the computerthat receives

and stores data for processing;

6. Outputting f) directing the sequence of the opera-

tions performed;

7. Memory - g) >a written language symbol;

8. Record h) a collection of related data elements

9. Keyboard i) a set of related facts;

10. Storing j) the process of entering collected into

a data processing system;


Unit 5

COMPUTER SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

architecture ['aki'tektfs]— архитектура; структура

architect ['akitekt] — разработчик архитектуры (систе­мы, структуры)

unit ['jmnit] — устройство; модуль; блок; элемент; со­ставная часть

accessory equipment [sek'sesan] — вспомогательные уст­ройства

engineering background ['baekgraund]— техническая под­готовка, квалификация

analyst ['aenshst] — аналитик; системный разработчик product line — серия (компьютерных) продуктов

manufacturer [] — изготовитель; произво­дитель; разработчик

application programmer [aepli'keijh ргои'дгэетэ] — при­кладной программист

to simulate ['simjuleit] — моделировать; имитировать voltage ['voltidj] — напряжение pressure [] — давление, сжатие

digital computer ['did3itsl ksm'pjitfs] — цифровой компь­ютер

hybrid computer ['haibnd] — смешанного типа, аналого-цифровой компьютер

discrete [dis'kri:t] — дискретный; отдельный

continuous quantity [ksn'tinjuss 'kwDntiti] — непрерывная величина

on-going process —продолжающийся, постоянный, не­прерывный процесс

to rely [n'lai] — основываться на ч.-л.; полагаться


57 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

to install [m'sto:l] — устанавливать; размещать; монтиро­вать; настраивать

household appliances ['haushould sp'larensiz] — домашние приборы / устройства

microwave oven ['maikrouweiv 4vn] — микроволновая печь

indoor climate control system — система регуляции тем­пературы в доме

Types of computers

The two basic types of computers are analog and digital. Analog computers simulate physical systems. They operate on the basis of an analogy to the process that is being studied. For ex-


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 58

ample, a voltage may be used to represent other physical quan­tities such as speed, temperature, or pressure. The response of an analog computer is based upon the measurement of signals that vary continuously with time. Hence, analog computers are used in applications that require continuous measurement and control.

Digital computers, as contrasted with analog computers, deal with discrete rather than continuous quantities. They count rather than measure. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to simulate on-going, or real-time processes. Because they are discrete events, commercial transactions are in a natural form for digital computation. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.

Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific, and in­dustrial computer applications rely on the combination of ana­log and digital devices. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of mi­croprocessors and microcomputers. An example of this growth is the trend toward installing control systems in household ap­pliances such as microwave ovens and sewing machines. In the future we will have complete indoor climate control systems and robots to do our housecleaning. Analog sensors will provide in­puts to the control centres of these systems, which will be small digital computers.

3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­
пользуя информацию текста.

1.Who designs computers and their accessory equipment? 2. What is the role of an analyst? 3. Is it necessary for a user to become a computer system architect? 4. What functions do computer systems perform? 5. What types of computers do you know? 6. What is the principle of operation of analog comput­ers? 7. How do digital computers differ from analog comput­ers? 8. Where are digital and analog computers used? 9. What are hybrid computers? 10. Where do they find application?

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Функции ввода, хранения, обработки, управления ивывода информации; познакомиться; системные блоки;


59 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

для начала; вспомогательные устройства; разработчик ком­пьютерной системы; хорошая компьютерная подготовка; различные сферы применения; корпорация цифрового оборудования; прикладной программист; системный раз­работчик; главные устройства компьютерной системы; моделировать физические величины; измерение сигналов; в отличие от; иметь дело скорее с дискретными, чем не­прерывными величинами; в режиме реального времени; коммерческие операции; цифровое вычисление; аналого-цифровые компьютеры; тенденция к установке систем управления; домашние приборы.

5. Образуйте (и переведите) имена существительные от
приведенных ниже глаголов с помощью суффиксов:

A. -er, -or

То control, to compute, to design, to use, to manufacture, to work, to simulate, to operate, to protect, to process, to deal, to perform, to examine, to program, to execute, to transmit, to convert, to print, to consume, to record.

B. -tion, -sion

To organize, to collect, to combine, to apply (ic), to repre­sent, to add, to corporate, to transact, to compute, to produce, to operate, to execute, to protect, to substitute, to prepare, to invent, to decide, to eliminate, to communicate, to correct, to inform.

С -ment

To require, to measure, to equip, to invest, to accomplish, to improve, to develop, to achieve, to displace, to govern, to move.

6. Переведите предложения, содержащие Participle I и
Participle II, в функции обстоятельства.

1. When entering the Internet, I always find a lot of inter­esting information. 2. Though never built Babbage's analytical engine was the basis for designing today's computers. 3. When written in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language. 4. While operating on the basis of analogy analog computers simulate physical systems. 5. When used voltage represents other physical quantities in analog com­puters. 6. Being discrete events commercial transactions are in


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 60

a natural form for a digital computer. 7. As contrasted with the analyst, the computer system architect designs computers for many different applications. 8. While dealing with discrete quan­tities digital computers count rather than measure. 9. When using a microcomputer you are constantly making choice — to open a file, to close a file, and so on. 10. As known all comput­er systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, process­ing, controlling, and outputting.

7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

hardware ['hcudwes] — аппаратное обеспечение; аппара­тура; оборудование

software ['softwea] — программное обеспечение; про­граммные средства

system software — системное программное обеспечение

application software — прикладное программное обеспе­чение

firmware ['faimwea] — встроенное /микропроцессорное программное обеспечение

visible units ['vizibl 'jirnits] — видимый блок, устройство procedure [pra'SKd&d] — процедура, процесс; метод, ме­тодика; алгоритм

to associate [s'soujieit] — соединять; объединять; связы­вать

associated documentation — соответствующая докумен­тация

to execute applications programs — выполнять приклад­ные программы

payroll ['peiroul] — платежная ведомость

inventory control [m'ventsn ksn'troul] — инвентаризация; переучет

investment analyses [s'nsehsiz] — анализ инвестиций (ка­питаловложений)

to protect [pfa'tekt] — защищать

read-only memory (ROM) — постоянное запоминающее устройство (ПЗУ)

to refer to [лТэ:] — относиться к; ссылаться на


61 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

to substitute ['sAbstitjmt] — заменять; замещать

to cause ['ko:z] — заставлять, вынуждать; причина, осно­вание

to accomplish [s'komplij] — завершать, заканчивать; вы­полнять, осуществлять

performance [ps'foimans] — производительность; быстро­действие; рабочая характеристика

8. Прочтите текст 2 и объясните, как вы понимаете тер­мины «аппаратное обеспечение» и «программное обес­печение». Переведите текст.

Text 2. HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, AND FIRMWARE

The units that are visible in any computer are the physical components of a data processing system, or hardware. Thus, the input, storage, processing and control devices are hardware. Not visible is the software — the set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system. Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software.

Systems software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. They do not solve specific problems. They are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations required, to move data into and out of a com­puter and all of the steps in executing an application program. The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. Systems programmers are highly trained specialists and important members of the architectural team.

Applications software are the programs written to solve spe­cific problems (applications), such as payroll, inventory control, and investment analysis. The word program usually refers to an application program, and the word programmer is usually a person who prepares applications software.

Often programs, particularly systems software, are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software. These protected programs are stored in an area of memory called read­only memory (ROM), which can be read from but not written on.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 62

Firmware is a term that is commonly used to describe cer­tain programs that are stored in ROM. Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for hard­ware. For example, in an instance where cost is more impor­tant than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to mul­tiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeat­ed use of circuits already designed to perform addition.

9. Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.

1.What is hardware? 2. Give the definition of software. 3. What are the types of software? 4. What are systems software? 5. What kind of tasks do systems software perform? 6. Who pre­pares systems software? 7. What are applications software? 8. What problems do applications software solve? 9. What is firm­ware? 10. How can a computer system architect use firmware?

10. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний:

Видимые устройства; система обработки данных; аппа­ратное обеспечение; набор компьютерных программ; со­ответствующая документация; эффективная работа; систем­ное программное обеспечение; прикладное программное обеспечение; системный программист; платежная ведо­мость; переучет; анализ инвестиций; прикладная програм­ма; работающий только в режиме чтения; постоянное за­поминающее устройство; последовательность команд; в случае; производительность; электронная цепь; умножать числа; заставить машину выполнять ту же функцию; вы­полнять сложение.

11. Вспомните значение новых слов и попытайтесь пере­
вести словосочетания, употребляемые с этими словами.

Architecture: communication architecture; computer archi­tecture; disk architecture; microprocessor architecture; network architecture; security architecture; system architecture; virtual architecture.

Software: system software; application software; database software; disk software; educational software; game software; management software; simulation software.


63 Unit 5. Computer Systems: An Overview

Hardware: computer hardware; device hardware; display hardware; memory hardware; mouse hardware; network hard­ware; system hardware; video hardware.

Procedure: accounting procedure; computational procedure; control procedure; data-processing procedure; decision proce­dure; error-correcting procedure; formatting procedure; instal­lation procedure; management procedure; solution procedure.

Protection: computer protection; data protection; device pro­tection; display protection; error protection; hardware protec­tion; software protection; resource protection; security protec­tion; system protection; virus protection.

12. Озаглавьте каждый компонент текста и составьте не­большой реферат к нему (по вариантам).

Опишите схему.


93__________________________________ Unit 7. Storage

13. Переведите предложения, содержащие всевозможные
формы причастий: Participle I, Participle II, Perfect

Participle Active и Perfect ParticiplePassive.

1.Electromechanical memories depend upon moving me­chanical parts for their operation. 2. The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to and from a storage me­dium is called the access time. 3. Being not visible software makes possible the effective operation of computer system. 4. Having invented magnetic tapes the Germans used them as the secondary storage medium. 5. When properly programmed computers don't make computational errors. 6. Having been in­troduced in the early 1960s magnetic disc storage has replaced magnetic tape storage. 7. The control unit interpreting instruc­tions is one of the important parts of any computer system. 8. Data recorded in the form of magnetized dots can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits. 9. As contrasted with mag­netic tapes magnetic discs can perform both sequential and ran­dom processing. 10. While having no moving mechanical parts electronic memories can transfer data at very high speed.

14. Выполните письменный перевод текста по вариантам.

DIGITAL COMPUTER OPERATION

1. A digital computer is a machine capable of performing operations on data represented in digital or number form. The individual operations performed by a digital computer are very simple arithmetic or logical processes involving the manipula­tion of the bits in words or characters of information. The great power of any digital computer rests in the ability to store large volumes of data and to perform these operations at extremely high speed.

In most electronic digital computers the method of number representation is based on the system of binary notation. The binary notation system is most widely used because of the con­venience in constructing logical circuits and storage devices ca­pable of handling data in this form. For example, a magnetic memory unit consists of many thousand individual magnetic cells, each of which can be energized in either of two ways to represent the binary digits 0 or 1. If these cells are grouped to form words or binary coded characters, information can be


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 94

stored for processing in units of specified size. In the same way, digital data can be recorded as a series of magnetized spots on a magnetic tape or a magnetic disk.

2. The computer has pervaded most fields of human activity and is the most important innovation of our age. Born out of the technology of communication, it is capable of handling enormous amounts of information at tremendous speeds. What makes it so potent is the fact that a single mechanism can per­form any information-processing task. The same mechanism can control industrial processes, guide space vehicles or help to teach children. This diversity of tasks is made possible by the simple idea of the stored program.

A program is the enumeration of determining commands. It specifies the method used for the solution of a problem in de­tail. When the machine is. in operation, both the commands and the numbers to be processed are constantly being taken out of and put into a depository of information known as a memory.

It can be seen that the processes performed by a digital com­puter are essentially simple. These operations can be performed at extremely high speeds and with a high degree of coordina­tion between the different functional units of the hardware sys­tem, and this ability means that digital computers can under­take highly complex tasks.

15. Прочтите внимательно текст. Составьте на английском языке план текста, выделив основные его темы. План можно составить в вопросной, назывной или тезисной форме. Познакомьтесь с образцами планов, представ­ленными после текста; сравните со своим планом.

MEMORY

It is interesting to note that memory, one of the basic com­ponents of the computer, is often called storage. It stores cal­culation program, the calculation formulae, initial data, inter­mediate and final results. Therefore, the functions of the computer memory may be classified in the following way. Firstly, the computer memory must store the information transmitted from the input and other devices. Secondly, memory should produce the information needed for the computation process to all other devices of the computer.


95 Unit 7. Storage

Generally, memory consists of two main parts called the main, primary or internal, memory and the secondary, or ex­ternal memory. The advantage of the primary memory is an extremely high speed. The secondary memory has a compara­tively low speed, but it is capable of storing far greater amount of information than the main memory. The primary storage takes a direct part in the computational process. The second­ary storage provides the information necessary for a single step in the sequence of computation steps.

The most important performance characteristics of a stor­age unit are speed, capacity and reliability. Its speed is measured in cycle time. Its capacity is measured by the number of ma­chine words or binary digits. Its reliability is measured by the number of failures (отказ) per unit of time.

План в вопросной форме.

1. What is memory?

2. What is the function of memory?

3. What are the main parts of memory?

4. What are advantages and disadvantages of a storage unit?

5. What are their functions?

6. What are performance characteristics of the main and
secondary memory?

7. What units are performance characteristics measured by?

План в назывной форме

1. The definition of memory.

2. The main functions of memoiy.

3. Classification of memory.

4. Advantages and disadvantages of memory components.

5. The functions of memory components.

6. Performance characteristics of memory.

7. The units for measuring the performance characteristics
of memory.

План в тезисной форме.

1. Memory is one of the basic components of the comput­
er.

2. Memory stores initial data, intermediate and final results.

3. It produces the information needed to other devices of
the computer.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 96

4. Memory consists of the main (internal) and the second­
ary (external) storage.

5. The main memory has high speed, but small capacity; the
secondary memory possesses lower speed but greater ca­
pacity.

6. The main memory performs computation; the secondary
memory provides information sequentially, step by step.

7. The performance characteristics — speed, capacity and
reliability — are measured by cycles, binary digits an

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