13. .

1. 7/ is well known that personal computers enjoy great popularity among experimenters and hobbyists. 2. // took years to produce a high-speed computer performing a lot of functions. 3. When making up the summary of the text one should put down the exact title of the article, the author's name and the date of the edition. 4. It is difficult to imagine modern life with-

139 Unit 10. Personal Computers

out a computer. 5. It is quite impossible to listen to your English pronunciation: you make bad mistakes while reading. 6. Concerning these substances one must say that they vary in their composition. 7. When working with these substances one should be very careful. 8. // was once a universal practice to man-ifacture each of the components separately and then assemble the complete device by wiring () the components together with metallic conductors. 9. It was no good: the more components and interactions, the less reliable the system. 10. // should first be made clear what the term "microelectronics" means.

14. ,

Participle Active Passive

_____ Present using being used

______ Past________________ ------ ________________ used________

_____ Perfect having used Having been used

1. The results obtained are of particular importance for our research. 2. Having obtainedthe required results we informed the manager of this fact. 3. The necessary data having been obtained, we could continue our experiment. 4. Being obtained the results of the research were analysed. 5. While operating with graphical interface people usually use such manipulators as a mouse and a track ball. 6. Key-to-disk devices used as data recording stations can correct data before storing it on a magnetic disk. 7. D.Mendeleyev having arranged the elements in a table, the existence of yet unknown elements could be predicted. 8. All the necessary preparations having been done, the operator began assembling the machine. 9. Being built on the basis of transistors lasers are successfully used in technology.

15. .
( ),

: that; so that; if, whether; which; when; while;
since; till; until; whatever; whenever; in orderto; regardless

1. It is well known in computer science that the words "computer" and "processor' are used interchangeably. 2. The operation part of the instruction is decoded so that the proper arith-

. 140

metic and logic operation can be performed. 3. It is difficult to establish whether this problem can be solved at all. 4. Programs and data on which the control unit and the arithmetic-logical unit operate must be in internal memory in order to be processed. 5. The CU has a register that temporarily holds the instructions read from memory while it is being executed. 6. Regardless o/the nature of the I/O devices, I/O interfaces are required to convert the input data to the internal codes used by the computer and to convert internal codes to a format which is usable by the output devices. 7. The purpose of registers in the ALU is to hold the numbers and the results of the calculation until they can be transferred to the memory. 8. Since the computer deals with pulses, the input device is a way of converting numbers written on paper into pulses and sending them to the storage. 9. The principal characteristics of personal computers are that they are single-user system and are based on microprocessors. 10. However, although personal computers are designed as single-user systems, it is common to link them together to form a network.

16. .


The piece of equipment that allows a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines is called a modem. The modem allows the individual to access information from all over the world and use that information in everyday life. Connecting with banks, Automatic Teller Machines, cash registers to read credit cards, access travel agents, buy products, e-mail, access databases, and teleconferencing, the modems provide easy access to many services. Files can be transferred easily, by uploading to another machine, or downloading to your own machine within a matter of minutes. The computer modem can be used as a telephone answering system, and documents can be faxed from one computer to another assuring fast and easy access to important documents.

A modem takes computer information and changes it into a signal that can be sent over telephone lines. The modem is a bridge between digital and analog signals. The computer is of

________________________ Unit 10. Personal Computers

the digital type, and the telephone using analog technology. The modem converts the "0"s and "l"s of the computer (off-on switches) into an analog signals modulating the frequency of the electronic wave or signal. The modem does just the opposite and demodulate the signal back into digital code. The modem gets its name from MOdulate and the DEModulate.

Most people believe that you need a separate phone line for a modem, but that is not true.Your modem and telephone can share one line, the problem arises when someone else needs to use the telephone while the modem is in use. Also disable call waiting, it could disrupt your modem connection while the modem is in use.

There are three kinds of modems internal, external, and fax. All modems do the same thing, they allow computers to communicate through telephone lines. This lets computers exchange information everywhere. Internal Modem is a circuit board that plugs into one of the expansion slots of the computer. Internal modems usually are cheaper than external modems, but when problems occur, fixing and troubleshooting the modem can sometimes prove to be quite difficult. External Modem attaches to the back of the computer by way of a cable that plugs into the modem port. It is usually less expensive and very portable. It can be used with other computers very easily by unplugging it and plugging it into another computer. Fax Modem can be hooked up to your telephone and used to send information to your computer. Your computer can also send information to a fax machine. Most computer modems are modems with faxing capabilities.

17. .


1. The organization of a microcomputer system is the same as that of a larger computer system. The microprocessor unit (MPU), usually concentrated in a single chip, consists of the control unit and the arithmetic logical unit. Internal memory

: 2016-06-09

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