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Ex.2. Say what you know about stock exchanges in Ukraine. Do you think stock exchanges are necessary? Is it usual for ordinary people in Ukraine to own shares?


Ex.3. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms. Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.

1. The work was difficult at first but, after a few weeks, everything fell into place.

2. “It’s not my place to give you advice”, the clerk said to the manager.

3. If we cut out all unnecessary expenses, we shall have a reasonable chance of weathering the storm.

4. Charging you ? 200 for that simple repair was daylight robbery.

5. After months of work, we are beginning to see daylight.


Ex.4. Comment on the following:

"The best entrepreneurs are risk avoiders. They identify the risk, and then they take actions to minimize the effects of it."

(Paul Hawken)



Lesson 4

Text: Investments

Grammar: Third Conditional. Progress Test III (Conditionals).


Terms to remember:


capital goods засоби виробництва; товари виробничого призначення
portfolio портфель цінних паперів
Unit Trust (BrE) пайовий інвестиційний фонд/траст
Mutual Fund (AmE) взаємний фонд; інвестиційний фонд
fixed rate of interest фіксована процентна ставка
gilt-edged security /gilt (BrE) гарантований цінний папір
treasury bond (AmE) казначейська облігація
derivative instrument/derivative похідний інструмент
futures ф’ючерс, терміновий контракт, термінова угода
deal угода
option опціон, угода з премією (обумовлене виплатою премії право купити чи продати цінні папери за встановленим курсом)
swap своп, обмін активами чи зобов’язаннями
suit (v) влаштовувати, задовольняти




When we speak about investments we mean the purchase by a business of new capital or of capital goods such as new machinery. In the most general sense, the objective of investing is to earn money with money. When an investor holds the collection of financial securities we say that he holds portfolio.

Unit Trust (BrE) or Mutual Fund (AmE) is a company that spreads its investors’ capital over a variety of securities. Investment in a unit trust/mutual fund reduces the risk for the small investor.

Apart from stocks and shares there are many types of investment opportunities available. When a company or government wishes to raise finance it can issue bonds. These are securities offered at a fixed rate of interest. Bonds issued by the government are called gilt-edged securities or gilts in the UK, and treasury bonds in the US.

Derivatives or derivative instruments are financial products such as futures, options and swaps. Futures are contracts that give the right to buy and sell currencies and commodities at an agreed time in the future at a price agreed at the time of the deal.

Options are contracts enabling the holder to buy a security at a fixed price for a limited period. Swaps allow the exchange of one asset for another to suit both parties.



Exercises in Word Study


Ex.1. Form verbs from the following nouns:

collection, reduction, product, agreement, investor, holder, meaning, earnings.


Ex.2. Give the English for:

купівля товарів виробничого призначення; заробляти гроші; мета інвестування; взаємний фонд; зменшувати ризик; інвестор; залучати фінанси; випускати облігації; пропонувати цінні папери за фіксованою процентною ставкою; гарантований цінний папір; купувати цінні папери за фіксованою ціною; влаштовувати обидві сторони.


Ex.3. Match words from list A with words from list B that have a similar meaning:

objective mutual fund reduce gilts deal buy investor opportunity available obtainable possibility shareholder transaction purchase treasury bonds decrease unit trust target


Ex.4. Find suitable opposites to the following words and phrases:

disinvestment, to increase, domestic investment, obstacle, to forbid, inaccessible.


Ex.5. Match the nouns in the left-hand column with the verbs in the right-hand column:

  unit trust   portfolio   gilts   deal analyse add to invest in manage make conclude issue trade in


Ex.6. Look at words and phrases in the box. Match them with the correct definition from the list below.



1. a group of different investments held by a private investor, or a financial organization;

2. an organization that manages a fund invested in a wide range of securities;

3. government securities with a fixed interest payable at regular intervals;

4. a bond issued by the US government;

5. goods, currency or securities that will be supplied or exchanged on an agreed future date and for a price fixed in advance;

6. the right to buy or sell a fixed quantity of a commodity, currency or security on a particular date at a particular price;

7. the exchange of business asset for another, instead of money;

8. a business agreement to buy or sell goods or provide a service;

9. an item such as a machine, a building, or a raw material that is used to manufacture products for sale to consumers;

10. a person or an organization that buys property, shares, securities, etc. in order to sell again to make a profit or to receive money in the form of interest or dividends.


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