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Ex.4. Complete each sentence, using say, tell or speak in an appropriate form.

1. He … a few words about this account.

2. She can … a few European languages.

3. Don’t … me that this advert is important.

4. Can you … me the way to the nearest advertising agency?

5. She … she is interested in our goods.

6. I can …that these goods are in great demand.

7. We … with the advertiser about this problem.

8. Neither of my parents … English.

9. The magazine also … about advertising in Italy.

10. She … me that she would be late.

11. I … to my secretary and she … she would phone you.

12. Why don’t you … what you mean?


Speech and Discussion


Ex.1. Talk to your groupmate about advertising. Think about:

s the role and the purpose of advertising;

s the advantages and disadvantages of using various advertising media;

s the best way/place to advertise products and services.



Ex.2. Discuss with your groupmates:

s What are the best and the worst adverts in Ukraine at the moment?

s What do you think advertising agencies should or shouldn’t do?

s Do you think that the world would be better off without advertising?



Ex.3. Can you think of any new and innovative ways to advertise?


Ex.4. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms. Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.

1. If you want any information, ask Mrs. Jones. She knows her onions.

2. I can’t lend you $ 10, because I’m really hard up this month.

3. I wish I hadn’t paid Brown all that money in advance; he has taken me for a ride.

4. I don’t care two pence what Martin thinks.

5. “It’s high time we did away with red tape!” a voice called.



Ex.5. Comment on the following:

“Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what you are doing, but nobody else does.”






Choose the word or word combination to match the definition.

1. An advertisement on radio or on television.

a) article b) review c) commercial


2. A phrase used in advertisements to attract attention to the product.

a) celebrity b) slogan c) proverb


3. The perception that the public has of a person or organization.

a) attitude b) reputation c) image


4. A company which sells goods or equipment to another company.

a) customer b) supplier c) retailer


5. The group of people that the company wants to buy the product.

a) target market b) local market c) competitive market


6. A customer of someone who provides a professional service.

a) buyer b) client c) seller


7. An organized movement for consumer protection.

a) consignment b) consumption c) consumerism


8. The study of what products and services customers might like to buy.

a) market penetration b) market demand c) market research


9. A group of consumers for whom a business has designed a product and marketing strategy.

a) supermarket b) target market c) financial market


10. The company that sells the largest amount of a specific commodity in a particular area.

a) market trend b) market share c) market leader


11. Items created to be used in everyday life.

a) durable goods b) consumer goods c) industrial goods


12. Goods that can be imported without customs duties.

a) perishable b) luxury goods c) duty-free goods


13. Something that earns a lot of money.

a) money broker b) money spinner c) money-maker


14. A product sold at a loss to encourage trade.

a) loss leader b) moneylender c) cash cow


15. The movement of goods to places where they can be sold.

a) marketing b) promotion c) distribution


16. The amount of money for which something can be bought or sold.

a) charge b) value c) price


17. An exhibition where companies in a particular industry display their products to potential buyers.

a) trade gap b) trade fair c) trade mark


18. The work of presenting a good image of an organization to the public.

a) public monopoly b) public relations c) public spending


19. The combination of factors that influence sales and can be controlled by a company, these include product, pricing, promotion and place.

a) marketing concept b) marketing environment c) marketing mix


20. Bringing in more money than is spent.

a) profitable b) promotional c) productive


Unit IV business and finance

Lesson 1

Text: Costs. Assets and Liabilities

Grammar: Reported Questions, Orders, Requests


Terms to remember:


costs витрати, видатки; вартість, собівартість
output продукція; випуск, виготовлення; обсяг виробництва; продуктивність
fixed costs основні витрати
variable costs змінні витрати
direct costs прямі витрати
indirect costs непрямі, посередні витрати
overhead costs/overheads накладні витрати
expenses/expenditure витрати, видатки
assets and liabilities активи та пасиви
fixed assets неліквідні активи; основний капітал
current assets поточні оборотні активи (кошти), оборотний капітал
receivables рахунки дебіторів; дебітори, дебіторська заборгованість
deposit депозит, вклад у банку
generate, (v) створювати
long-term liabilities довгострокові зобов’язання (пасиви)
current liabilities короткострокові зобов’язання (пасиви)
be due for (v) бути зобов’язаним; підлягати виплаті


Costs. Assets and Liabilities


The money that a business spends in order to produce goods or services is its costs. Different businesses have different cost structures and define and calculate their costs in different ways. One way of classifying the costs of a business is to relate them to the output of the firm.

Fixed costs are those which remain unchanged whatever the level of output, e.g. rent, heating, interest charges, salaries; variable costs change directly with the output of the business, e.g. materials.

Direct costs are directly related to the things produced. In manufacturing, for example, direct costs include raw materials and wages.

Indirect costs may include things like social security charges on top of the wages.

Overhead costs or overheads are used to mean different things, but usually cover all the regular non-production costs of running a business, such as salaries and telephone bills; they may include the cost of marketing.

Costs are also referred to as expenses or expenditure.

Things of value owned by a firm are its assets. Fixed assets are long-term assets which are for use in the business and not for re-sale (land, buildings, furniture, equipment, etc.)

Current assets are used in the course of business. They include cash, receivables, bank deposits and investments in other companies.

The assets help generate the income of the company.

Liabilities are what a business owes to those outside the business (suppliers, lenders, etc.).

Liabilities are classified as either long-term liabilities which are due for repayment after more than one year, or current liabilities which are short-term debts and debts to suppliers the company expects to pay within one year.


Exercises in Word Study


Ex.1. Form verbs from the following nouns:

expenditure, receivables, generation, cost, definition, calculation, investment, classification, repayment, expectation.

Ex.2. Give the English for:

виробляти товари та послуги; витрати; структура витрат; підраховувати витрати; основні витрати; обсяг виробництва; заробітна платня; змінні витрати; прямі витрати; сировина; непрямі витрати; накладні витрати; активи та пасиви; неліквідні активи; перепродаж; поточні оборотні активи; готівка; рахунки дебіторів; дохід компанії; довгострокові (короткострокові) зобов’язання; борг.


Ex.3. Match words from list A with words from list B that have a similar meaning:

current assets output change remain produce long-term liabilities current liabilities fixed assets own expenses expenditure possess alter production short-term liabilities deferred liabilities manufacture stay capital assets circulating assets


Ex.4. Find suitable opposites to the following words and phrases:

assets, to own, current liabilities, fixed assets, withdrawal, bottom, revenue.

Ex.5. Match the nouns in the left hand column with the verbs in the right hand column:

  debt   costs   output increase limit maintain reduce expand discharge be in repay run into write off calculate estimate incur offset save


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