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Ex.7. The words in the box frequently occur before “goods”.



Find combinations that mean:

1. items created to be used in everyday life, e.g. food, clothes, magazines, bicycles, toys;

2. items such as television sets and radios;

3. items such as refrigerators and washing machines, so called because they are made of white painted metal;

4. goods such as cars, furniture, refrigerators, televisions, etc. that last for a fairly long time;

5. expensive items that are bought from choice and not necessity;

6. goods that can be imported, usually in limited quantities, without customs duties;

7. goods, esp. food, that can go bad or decay quickly;

8. goods that are bought on impulse.


Ex.8. Look at the words and phrases in the box. Match them with the correct definition from the list below:



1. the idea that the sale of a product goes through 4 phases: introduction, growth, maturity and decline;

2. something that earns a lot of money;

3. a product sold at a loss to encourage trade;

4. bringing in more money than is spent;

5. to take something back;

6. the job that an organization does;

7. to make goods to sell from raw materials;

8. goods for sale;

9. slow-selling goods in stagnant markets.


Ex.9. Write the appropriate word or phrase in the following spaces. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. The book could be a real … .

2. Soap, toothpaste, batteries and light bulbs are all … consumer goods.

3. You are welcome to examine … before buying.

4. Shops use … to attract customers.

5. This deal should be highly … .

6. Fashion goods have a short … .

7. These goods were … in France.

8. The popularity of home entertainment will be maintained with sales of … such as televisions and hi-fi equipment.

9. In Great Britain supermarkets sometimes sell top brands below cost as … .

10. Trained staff is trying … customers to spend far more.

11. Consumers buy a lot of … at Christmas time.

To persuade, brown goods, manufactured, impulse goods, product life cycle; profitable; loss leaders (2), the merchandise; fast-moving; money spinner.



Ex.10. These words are often confused:

To succeed – to manage – to cope

to succeed – to accomplish a task or reach a goal; to do well in life
to manage – to struggle but succeed at doing something
to cope – to face difficulties and try to overcome them.


Complete these sentences using the correct form of one of the words above. Make sentences of your own to show that you understand the difference in their meaning.

1. She has … in business and is now a millionaire.

2. The test was difficult but he … to do well.

3. He … to carry the heavy suitcase into the house alone.

4. He … with the pain and finally got well again.

5. Unfortunately I didn’t … to pass the exam.

6. Not many of us … in achieving our ambitions.

7. If her business … she will become a rich woman.

8. He … in passing his final exam.

9. He can’t … with this difficult task, so he is going to ask you to help him.

10. She … to achieve good results in a short space of time.


Exercises in Comprehension


Ex.1. Answer the following questions:

1. What makes the business world?

2. How can a product be characterized?

3. What two general categories may products be grouped into?

4. What do we call such things as washing machines and refrigerators?

5. Can brown goods be also referred to as merchandise?

6. What are services?

7. If a product generates a lot of profit is it a money spinner or a loss leader?

8. What purposes is a loss leader used for?

9. Why must firms introduce new products?


Ex.2. Find in the text the correct term for the definition and write it in the space provided.

1. Products called ______ are products that consumers want to purchase frequently with a minimum of effort.

2. Products that have a special attraction to consumers who are willing to go out of their way to obtain them are called ______ .

3. Products known as _______ are products that consumers are unaware of, haven't necessarily thought of buying.

4. Consumers buy _______ only after comparing value, quality, and price from a variety of sellers.


Ex.3. Sum up what you remember about:

s products and services;

s different kinds of goods.


Grammar Revision


The Passive Voice (Perfect) Form be + Past Participle Perfect Present the letter has been written Past the letter had been written Future the letter will have been written


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