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Ex.1. Complete the sentences using the correct passive (perfect) form of the verbs in brackets.

1. A lot of new companies (open) in our city this year.

2. We didn’t know that he (not invite).

3. The construction of our new office (finish) before winter comes.

4. He went to London last year and he (not hear) of ever since.

5. I wondered why her child (not teach) any foreign language.

6. The instructions just (give).

7. He didn’t follow the advice he (give).

8. I realized that the letter (lose).

9. The answers to all business letters (write) long before the end of the working day.

10. This historical fact (know) for many years.

11. The work (do) by the time he comes back to the office.

12. I wondered whether the product already (withdraw) from the market.


Ex.2. Open the brackets, using the Passive Voice.

1. This new product much (talk) about.

2. Those papers (not look through) yet.

3. Several contracts (sign) next week.

4. When I came, the problem (not settle) yet.

5. The letter still (translate).

6. The list of applicants (make) before I came.

7. Nothing (hear) of her since she left Kyiv.

8. This product (produce) in large numbers before we received this complaint about a bad quality.

9. A new cosmetic line (launch) onto the market by the end of the year.

10. The date of the meeting (change) before they informed us.

11. Your order (send) before you return.

12. You (bother) by that man again.


Ex.3. Translate into English:

1. Ці ходові споживчі товари виробляються в Україні.

2. Ці послуги надаються безкоштовно.

3. Було обговорено лише 2 питання, коли ми почули дзвінок.

4. Мені завжди давали корисні поради.

5. Що вам пояснювали, коли я зайшов?

6. Не входьте без запрошення. Зараз обговорюється дуже важливе питання.

7. На жаль нічого не було зроблено для того, щоб допомогти йому закінчити цей проект.

8. Цікаво, де надаються такі послуги?

9. Цей високоприбутковий товар буде завезено із західного регіону.

10. Коли згадали цей факт, усім стало зрозуміло, що малося на увазі.

11. Йому дали ще 3 тижні для того, щоб розробити новий продукт.

12. Коли ми приїхали в це місто, ця книга продавалася скрізь.

13. Цей продукт буде вилучено з продажу до кінця місяця.





Ex.1 Choose the correct answers.

1. He knew why he was chosen/had been chosen.

2. He was shocked/had been shocked by his boss’s attitude.

3. We are just sent/have just been sent new information.

4. Everything will be done/will have been done by the end of the week.

5. He is interviewed/is being interviewed now.

6. My application is still considered/is still being considered by the managers.

7. The letters has just been brought/have just been brought.

8. He explained that a new job was offered/had been offered to him in February.

9. She was never made/has never been made such an exciting proposal.

10. My computer is repaired/is being repaired now.

11. This cheque was signed/has been signed by the manager an hour ago.

12. Negotiations will have been held/will be held in Kyiv next week.

13. Prices for oil had been increased/have been increased again.

14. Our company was founded/has been founded in 1990.

15. Extra payments are given/are being given to employees with initiative once a month.


Ex.2. Open the brackets, using the Passive Voice.

1. Payment (make) in the local bank last week.

2. Special training (give) to new employees in our company.

3. Taxes (raise) now.

4. The project just (complete).

5. This new product (develop) by the end of the month.

6. A lot of the ideas for new products (provide) by customers.

7. My friend just (promote).

8. A decision already (make) when he came.

9. Every product (check) for quality.

10. Nothing (do) since we left the office.

11. The first branch of our bank (open) in 2000.

12. New marketing strategy (develop) now.

13. I (ask) to do a lot of extra work at the moment.

14. Most of the top managers (fire) after the takeover.

15. The company's German subsidiary (sell) by the end of the year.



Speech and Discussion


Ex.1. Describe what a product is and how products are classified.


Ex.2. What is the difference between goods and services? Give some familiar examples of each.


Ex.3. Discuss with your groupmates what firms should do to succeed in business.


Ex.4. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms. Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.

1. My manager has given me yeoman service for many years. I shall be sorry to lose him.

2. If you want to get to the top of the ladder, you must work like a demon.

3. I would like the job he is advertising. When you see him tomorrow, can you put in a good word for me?

4. You can rely on my promise, even though it is not in writing. My word is my bond.

5. At the interview, Jack played his cards well by trying to show how he could be useful to the company.


Ex.5. Comment on the proverb:

“If you wish to know what a man is, place him in authority.”



Lesson 4

Text: Marketing

Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses


Terms to remember:


involve (v) містити в собі, мати на увазі
demand попит, потреба
appropriate відповідний, підхожий
achieve (v) досягати, успішно виконувати
objective мета, завдання
marketing strategy стратегія маркетингу
take into consideration (v) брати до уваги
marketing mix формула маркетингу, комплекс маркетингу
promotion сприяння у продажу (товару)
support підтримка, допомога
reliability надійність
charge (v) призначати, вимагати плату
distribution розподіл; розповсюдження; розміщення; збут
package (v) пакувати




Marketing involves analysing and understanding customer demand in order to enable the company to provide the most appropriate products and services.

A company’s approach to achieving its marketing objectives is called marketing strategy.

The various factors a company must take into consideration when developing its marketing objectives are referred to as marketing mix. The marketing mix is often summarized as the so-called four P’s: product, price, place, promotion: what to sell, to whom, where, and with what support.

Product can be defined as goods or service that you are marketing and includes its design, quality and reliability.

Price refers to how much money a company charges for its products. The marketing view of pricing involves considering the value of a product, the volume of sales required.

Place refers to distribution, that is, how and where the product is made available to customers.

Promotion means presenting the product to the customer. Promotion involves considering the packaging and presentation of the product, its image, the product name, advertising.



Exercises in Word Study


Ex.1. Form nouns from the following verbs:

involve, analyse, provide, achieve, consider, summarize, pay, distribute, present.

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