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Ex.1. Change the following from active to passive.

1. The company manager increased my salary last week.

2. We bought this car last Friday.

3. He paid for this service in cash.

4. We seldom undertake such activities to protect the consumers’ rights.

5. We informed the customer of the delivery of his order.

6. The company increased the commission paid to agents.

7. Human Resources department recruits new staff every year.

8. Research and Development department developed several new products last year.

9. My company opened several subsidiaries in different locations.

10. Manufactures investigate consumer tastes.

11. Ford announced the loss of 4,000 jobs yesterday.

12. British Airlines forbids smoking during the flight.


Ex.2. Complete the sentences using the correct passive (simple) form of the verbs in brackets.

1. He (not invite) to the conference if he doesn’t present a report.

2. I (not pay) enough for the work I do.

3. A security system (install) in this laboratory next week.

4. Newspapers (deliver) every day except weekends.

5. The problem (solve) by the committee a week ago.

6. Taxes (reduce) in a few years.

7. The office (wash) every day.

8. The delegation (meet) at the airport.

9. Our working conditions (change) by new equipment.

10. The most important decisions usually (take) by the owners of a company.

11. Services in tourism (provide) by tourist companies.

12. When a private company (buy) by the state and (bring) into public sector, it is nationalized.


Ex.3. Translate into English:

1. Коло послуг нашої компанії було розширене минулого року.

2. Ці товари завжди купуються для перепродажу.

3. Права споживача захищаються державою.

4. Цей закон про захист прав споживачів був прийнятий кілька років тому.

5. Ця інформація завжди розповсюджується рекламними агенціями.

6. Смаки споживачів будуть досліджуватися нашим маркетинговим відділом.

7. Клієнтам нашого банку будуть запропоновані значні знижки.

8. Побутові послуги сплачуються за допомогою пластикової картки.

9. Декілька працівників нашої фірми було звільнено за обман покупців.

10. Ми не можемо повірити вашим словам, оскільки всі ваші вимоги були задоволені.

11. Спільне підприємство було створено своєчасно і зараз ми маємо великий прибуток.

12. Проект будівництва цього готелю був затверджений ще в 2000 році.



Speech and Discussion


Ex.1. Speak about different ways of talking about people who buy things.


Ex.2. Think of situations where it is necessary to protect the rights of a consumer and discuss them with your groupmates.


Ex.3. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms. Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.

1. Don’t believe him! He is a slippery customer.

2. I don’t want to go to law, but I shall have to if he doesn’t offer me fair compensation.

3. When you are being interviewed for a job, you must weigh your words before answering the questions they put to you.

4. Don’t waste words on that man; he isn’t interested in our complaint.

5. The losses you made on the Stock Exchange last year should have taught you a lesson.


Ex.4. Comment on:

“Do not fear when your enemies criticize you. Beware when they applaud.”

(Vo Dong Giang)


Lesson 2

Text: Markets and Market Orientation

Grammar: The Passive Voice (Continuous)


Terms to remember:


commodity market товарний ринок
target market цільовий ринок
indication ознака, свідчення; показник
market share частка ринку
market leader компанія, яка займає провідне становище на ринку
market segment сегмент ринку
market niche ринкова ніша, невеликий сегмент ринку для збуту певного товару
dominate (v) заволодівати, цілком поглинати; панувати, володарювати
marketer/marketeer діяч ринку, спеціаліст, продавець
respond (v) відповідати; реагувати, відгукуватися (на щось)
market-driven/market-led/market-oriented з ринковою орієнтацією
approach підхід
desire бажання; прагнення; побажання


Market and market orientation


A market for a product is the people or organizations who buy it or may buy it, or an area where it is sold. There exist different types of markets: street markets, shops and supermarkets, markets for services (e.g. restaurants), financial markets, commodity markets (e.g. coffee, tin).

A company’s or product’s target market is a group of consumers a company aims to sell its products to, for example children, housewives, fishermen, etc.

As an indication for the success of a business market share is often used which is the proportion of sales that a company or a product has in a particular market. The market leader is the company or product with the biggest share.

A firm usually focuses its attention on a market segment.Market segment is the part of a market consisting of consumers with similar characteristics. Ways in which a market might be segmented include age, income, lifestyle, geographical location.

A market niche is a small, specific segment of the market, often dominated by small firms selling some kind of goods.

Marketers often talk about market orientation: the fact that everything they do is designed to meet the needs of the market.

Companies quick to respond to the needs of a market are market-driven, market-led or market-oriented. A market-oriented approach to developing a product is one which puts the desires of the consumer at the centre of the decision about what to produce.

To make decisions about products companies do a market research which is the collection of information on markets, products and consumers; on what people need, want, and buy; how and when they buy and why they buy one thing rather than another.



Exercises in Word Study


Ex.1. Form nouns from the following verbs:

produce, organize, exist, differ, indicate, characterize, locate, dominate, decide, collect.


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